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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 24
Biochemistry

 
24-01
Title
Catabolic Pathways
Caption
Figure 24.1 An overview of catabolic pathways in the four stages of food degradation and the production of biochemical energy.
Notes
Catabolic pathways are reactions that break molecules apart, and generally release energy.
Keywords
catabolism, food degradation
24-01-05UN
Title
Alanine
Caption
Structural formula, electostatic potential map, and ball-and-stick model of alanine, an amino acid.
Notes
Structure of the amino acid alanine
Keywords
alanine
24-01-07UN
Title
Amino Acids
Caption
General structure of an alpha-amino acid.
Notes
General structure of an alpha-amino acid
Keywords
amino acids
24-02-02UN
Title
Worked Example 24.1
Caption
Identify the following amino acid, and tell from the electrostatic potential map whether its side chain is acidic, basic, neutral nonpolar, or neutral polar.
Notes
Worked Example 24.1
Keywords
amino acids
24-02-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.4
Caption
Identify the following amino acid, and tell from the electrostatic potential map whether its side chain is acidic, basic, neutral nonpolar, or neutral polar.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.4
Keywords
amino acids
24-03
Title
Molecular Handedness
Caption
Figure 24.3 Alanine (2-aminopropanoic acid) has no symmetry plane and can therefore exist in two forms—a “right-handed” form and a “left-handed” form. Propane, however, has a symmetry plane and is achiral.
Notes
Chiral molecules have mirror images that are not identical. Lack of a plane of symmetry within a molecule is an indication of chirality.
Keywords
handedness, chirality
24-04
Title
Enantiomers
Caption
Figure 24.4 A molecule with a carbon atom that is bonded to four different groups is chiral and is not identical to its mirror image. It thus exists in two enantiomeric forms.
Notes
Enantiomers are stereoisomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other.
Keywords
chirality, enantiomers
24-04-01UN
Title
Chiral Amino Acids
Caption
Nineteen of the twenty common amino acids are chiral because they have four different groups bonded to the alpha carbon. Only glycine is achiral since it has two hydrogens attached to the alpha carbon and would have a plane of symmetry.
Notes
Structure of a general amino acid, showing the l-configuration with R representing some side chain other than hydrogen.
Keywords
chirality, amino acids
24-04-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.9
Caption
Two of the following three molecules are identical, and one is the enantiomer of the other two. Which one is the enantiomer?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.9
Keywords
enantiomers
24-07
Title
Secondary Protein Structure
Caption
Figure 24.7 The a-helical secondary structure of keratin. The amino acid backbone winds in a right-handed spiral, much like that of a telephone cord.
Notes
The alpha-helix of keratin, stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding.
Keywords
protein structure, alpha helix
24-08
Title
Secondary Protein Structure
Caption
Figure 24.8 The b-pleated-sheet secondary structure of silk fibroin. The amino acid side chains are above and below the rough plane of the sheet. (Dotted lines indicate hydrogen bonds between chains.)
Notes
The beta-pleated sheet of fibroin, in which the polypeptide chain doubles back on itself.
Keywords
protein structure, beta-pleated sheet
24-09
Title
Myoglobin
Caption
Figure 24.9 Secondary and tertiary structure of myoglobin, a globular protein found in the muscles of sea mammals. Myoglobin has eight helical sections.
Notes
Structure of myoglobin
Keywords
myoglobin, protein structure
24-11-04UN
Title
d-Glyceraldehyde
Caption
Ball-and-stick model and d-structure of the carbohydrate glyceraldehyde.
Notes
Structures of glyceraldehyde
Keywords
glyceraldehyde, carbohydrates
24-11-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.15
Caption
Classify the following monosaccharide, and identify each chiral carbon in its structure.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.
Keywords
monosaccharides, carbohydrates, chirality
24-12-01UN
Title
Lactose
Caption
Structure and ball-and-stick model of the disaccharide lactose.
Notes
Structures of lactose showing its components galactose and glucose.
Keywords
lactose, disaccharide
24-12-02UN
Title
Sucrose
Caption
Structure and ball-and-stick model of the disaccharide sucrose.
Notes
Structures of sucrose showing its components glucose and fructose.
Keywords
sucrose, disaccharide
24-14-04UN
Title
Nucleic Acids
Caption
Flowchart showing the formation of a nucleic acid starting from a sugar and an amine base.
Notes
Formation of nucleic acids
Keywords
nucleic acid
24-16-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.19
Caption
Identify the following bases, and tell whether each is found in DNA, RNA, or both.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.19
Keywords
amine bases
24-17
Title
Base Pairs in DNA
Caption
Figure 24.17 Hydrogen bonding between base pairs in the DNA double helix. Electrostatic potential maps show that the faces of the bases are relatively neutral (green), while the edges have positive (blue) and negative (red) regions. Pairing A with T and G with C brings together oppositely charged regions.
Notes
Hydrogen bonding between base pairs in the DNA double helix.
Keywords
DNA, base pairs, hydrogen bonding
24-18-01UN
Title
Transfer and Use of Genetic Information
Caption
Three main processes take place in the transfer and use of genetic information: replication, transcription, and translation.
Notes
The replication-transcription-translation process for the building of proteins
Keywords
replication, transcription, translation
24-19
Title
DNA Replication
Caption
Figure 24.19 DNA replication. A portion of the DNA double helix unwinds, and complementary nucleotides line up for linking to yield two new DNA molecules. Each of the new DNA molecules contains one of the original strands and one new strand.
Notes
Replication is an enzyme-catalyzed process that begins with partial unwinding of the double helix, followed by pairing of exposed bases with new nucleotides leading to the formation of two new DNA strands.
Keywords
replication, DNA
24-20
Title
Transcription of DNA
Caption
Figure 24.20 Transcription of DNA to synthesize RNA. A small portion of the DNA double helix unwinds, and one of the two DNA strands acts as a template on which ribonucleotides line up. The RNA produced is complementary to the DNA strand from which it is transcribed.
Notes
Transcription of DNA to synthesize RNA
Keywords
transcription
24-21
Title
Protein Biosynthesis
Caption
Figure 24.21 Protein biosynthesis. Messenger RNA is read by tRNA that contains complementary three-base sequences. Transfer RNA then assembles the proper amino acids (AA1, AA2, and so on) into position for incorporation into the peptide.
Notes
Messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) in protein biosynthesis
Keywords
biosynthesis, mRNA, tRNA
24-21-010UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Biochemistry key concept summary.
Notes
Key Concept Summary for Chapter 24
Keywords
key concept, summary
24-21-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.25
Caption
Identify the following amino acids, and tell whether each is acidic, basic, or neutral.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.25
Keywords
key concept, amino acids
24-21-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.26
Caption
Identify the following amino acids.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.
Keywords
key concept, amino acids
24-21-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.27
Caption
Does the following model represent a d-amino acid or an l-amino acid? Identify it.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.27
Keywords
key concept, amino acid, handedness, chirality
24-21-05UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.28
Caption
Is the following model of glucose in the alpha form or the beta form?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.28
Keywords
key concept, carbohydrate configuration
24-21-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.29
Caption
The following model represents d-ribose in its open-chain form. Is ribose an aldose or a ketose? How many chiral carbon atoms does ribose have?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.29
Keywords
key concept, carbohydrate, chirality
24-21-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.30
Caption
Identify the following dipeptide.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.30
Keywords
key concept, proteins
24-21-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 24.31
Caption
Identify the following amine bases found in nucleic acids:
Notes
Key Concept Problem 24.31
Keywords
key concept, amine bases, nucleic acid
24-TB01
Title
Table 24.1 Some Biological Functions of Proteins
Caption
Notes
Keywords
24-TB02
Title
Table 24.2 Turnover Numbers of Some Enzymes
Caption
Notes
Keywords
24-TB03
Title
Table 24.3 Structures of Some Common Fatty Acids
Caption
Notes
Keywords
24-TB04
Title
Table 24.4 Approximate Composition of Some Common Fats and Oils
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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