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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 22
Nuclear Chemistry

 
22-01
Title
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation
Caption
Figure 22.1 The effect of an electric field on a, b, and g radiation. The radioactive source in the shielded box emits radiation, which passes between two electrodes. Alpha radiation is deflected toward the negative electrode, b radiation is strongly deflected toward the positive electrode, and g radiation is undeflected.
Notes
Effect of an electric field on alpha, beta, and gamma radiation
Keywords
radiation, alpha, beta, gamma, deflection
22-01-01UN
Title
Alpha Radiation from Uranium-238
Caption
Uranium-238 spontaneously emits an alpha particle and forms thorium-234.
Notes
Alpha emission from radioactive decay of uranium-238
Keywords
radioactive decay, uranium, alpha radiation
22-01-02UN
Title
Beta Radiation from Iodine-131
Caption
Beta emission occurs when a neutron in the nucleus spontaneously decays into a proton plus an electron, which is then ejected.
Notes
Beta emission from the radioactive decay of iodine-131 to xenon-131
Keywords
radioactive decay, beta radiation
22-01-03UN
Title
Positron Emission
Caption
Positron emission occurs with conversion of a proton in the nucleus into a neutron plus an ejected positron, or 'positive electron'.
Notes
Positron emission from radioactive decay of potassium-40 to argon-40
Keywords
positron emission
22-01-04UN
Title
Electron Capture
Caption
Electron capture is a process in which the nucleus captures an inner-shell electron, thereby converting a proton into a neutron.
Notes
Electron capture by mercury-197 to form gold-197
Keywords
electron capture
22-02
Title
Radioactive decay and half-life
Caption
Figure 22.2 The decay of a radionuclide over time. No matter what the value of the half-life, 50% of the sample remains after one half-life, 25% remains after two half-lives, 12.5% remains after three half-lives, and so on.
Notes
Radioactive decay is a first-order process and is characterized by a half-life
Keywords
radioactive decay, half-life
22-02-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.7
Caption
What is the half-life of the radionuclide that shows the following decay curve?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.7
Keywords
radioactive decay, half-life
22-02-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.8
Caption
Copper-59 (red spheres) decays to nickel-59 (green spheres) with a half-life of 1.35 min. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the process, and tell how many half-lives have passed in the following sample:
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.8
Keywords
radioactive decay, half-life
22-03
Title
Nuclear Stability
Caption
Figure 22.3 The band of nuclear stability indicating various neutron/proton combinations that give rise to observable nuclei with measurable half-lives. Combinations outside the band are not stable. The “island of stability” near 114 protons and 184 neutrons corresponds to a group of superheavy nuclei that are predicted to be stable. The first members of this group were reported in 1999.
Notes
The effect of the neutron/proton ratio on nuclear stability
Keywords
nuclear stability
22-04
Title
Nonradioactive Isotopes
Caption
Figure 22.4 Numbers of nonradioactive isotopes with various even/odd combinations of neutrons and protons. The majority of nonradioactive isotopes have both an even number of protons and an even number of neutrons. Only four nonradioactive isotopes have both an odd number of protons and an odd number of neutrons.
Notes
Nonradioactive isotopes as a function of even and odd combinations of protons and neutrons
Keywords
nuclear stability, nonradioactive isotopes
22-05
Title
Nuclear Stability
Caption
Figure 22.5 A close-up look at the band of nuclear stability in the region from Z = 66 (dysprosium) through Z = 79 (gold) shows the types of radioactive processes undergone by various nuclides. Nuclides with lower neutron/proton ratios tend to undergo positron emission, electron capture, or alpha emission, whereas nuclides with higher neutron/proton ratios tend to undergo beta emission.
Notes
Radioactivity as a function of the ratio of neutrons to protons
Keywords
nuclear stability, radioactivity
22-06
Title
Decay Series
Caption
Figure 22.6 The decay series from uranium-238 to lead-206. Each nuclide except for the last is radioactive and undergoes nuclear decay. The left-pointing, longer arrows (red) represent alpha emissions, and the right-pointing, shorter arrows (blue) represent beta emissions.
Notes
Alpha and beta emissions within a decay series
Keywords
decay series, nuclear stability
22-06-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.10
Caption
The following series has two kinds of processes: one represented by the shorter arrows pointing right and the other represented by the longer arrows pointing left. Tell what kind of nuclear decay process each arrow corresponds to, and identify each nuclide A-E in the series:
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.10
Keywords
decay series, nuclear stability
22-07
Title
Binding Energy
Caption
Figure 22.7 The binding energy per nucleon for the most stable isotope of each naturally occurring element. Binding energy reaches a maximum of 8.79 MeV/nucleon at 56Fe. As a result, there is an increase in stability when much lighter elements fuse together to yield heavier elements up to 56Fe and when much heavier elements split apart to yield lighter elements down to 56Fe, as indicated by the arrows.
Notes
When a nucleus is formed from protons and neutrons, some mass (mass defect) is converted to energy (binding energy), as related by the Einstein equation, E = mc2.
Keywords
binding energy
22-08
Title
Nuclear Fission
Caption
Figure 22.8 A representation of nuclear fission. A uranium-235 nucleus fragments when struck by a neutron, yielding two smaller nuclei and releasing a large amount of energy.
Notes
Nuclear fission is the process by which heavy nuclei fragment when struck by a neutron
Keywords
nuclear fission
22-09
Title
Nuclear Power
Caption
Figure 22.9 A nuclear power plant. Heat produced in the reactor core is transferred by coolant circulating in a closed loop to a steam generator, and the steam then drives a turbine to generate electricity.
Notes
Schematic diagram of a nuclear power plant which uses nuclear fission to generate electricity
Keywords
nuclear power, fission
22-10
Title
Nuclear Power
Caption
Figure 22.10 Percentage of electricity generated by nuclear power in 2001.
Notes
Percentage of electricity generated by nuclear power listed by country (2001)
Keywords
nuclear power, electricity
22-11
Title
Detecting and Measuring Radioactivity
Caption
Figure 22.11 A Geiger counter for measuring radiation. As radiation enters the tube through a thin window, it ionizes argon atoms and produces electrons that conduct a tiny electric current from the negatively charged walls to the positively charged center electrode. The current flow then registers on the meter.
Notes
Picture and schematic diagram of a Geiger counter used to detect and measure radiation
Keywords
Geiger counter, radiation
22-12-020UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Nuclear Chemistry key concept summary.
Notes
Key Concept Summary for Chapter 22
Keywords
key concept, summary
22-12-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.19
Caption
Potassium-40 decays by positron emission to give argon-40. If yellow spheres represent potassium-40 atoms and blue spheres represent argon-40 atoms, how many half-lives have passed in the following sample?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.19
Keywords
key concept, radioactive decay, half-life
22-12-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.20
Caption
Write the symbol of the isotope represented by the following drawing. Blue spheres represent neutrons, and red spheres represent protons. Do you expect this nuclide to decay by positron emission or beta emission? Explain.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.20
Keywords
key concept, nuclear stability
22-12-05UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.21
Caption
Identify the isotopes involved, and tell the type of decay process occurring in the following nuclear reaction:
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.21
Keywords
key concept, nuclear stability
22-12-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.22
Caption
Isotope A decays to isotope E through the series of steps shown below. The series has two kinds of processes: one represented by the shorter arrows pointing right and the other represented by the longer arrows pointing left.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.22
Keywords
key concept, nuclear stability, radioactivity
22-12-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 22.23
Caption
What is the half-life of the radionuclide that shows the following decay curve?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 22.23
Keywords
key concept, half-life, radioactive decay
22-TB01
Title
Table 22.1 A Summary of Radioactive Decay Processes
Caption
Notes
Keywords
22-TB02
Title
Table 22.2 Half-Lives of Some Useful Radioisotopes
Caption
Notes
Keywords
22-TB03
Title
Table 22.3 Units for Measuring Radiation
Caption
Notes
Keywords
22-TB04
Title
Table 22.4 Some Properties of Ionizing Radiation
Caption
Notes
Keywords
22-TB05
Title
Table 22.5 Biological Effects of Short-Term Radiation on Humans
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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