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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 19
The Main-Group Elements

 
19-01
Title
Most abundant elements by mass
Caption
Figure 19.1 The 10 most abundant elements by mass (a) in the earth’s crust and (b) in the human body. All are main-group elements except iron and titanium.
Notes
The top ten most abundant elements by mass
Keywords
elements, earth's crust, human body
19-02-01UN
Title
Second-row elements
Caption
Periodic table highlighting the second-row elements
Notes
Distinctive properties of the second-row elements
Keywords
elements, second-row
19-02-03UN
Title
Orbital overlap
Caption
The small size of the second-row elements C, N, and O allows them to form multiple bonds by pi overlap of p orbitals. However, the pi overlap between atoms in the third-row is much weaker because the atoms are larger and bond lengths longer.
Notes
Strength of p-orbital overlap in the second-row elements
Keywords
pi bonding, second-row
19-02-06UN
Title
Worked Example 19.2
Caption
Structures of CO2, a gaseous molecular compound, compared to a portion of the covalent network in SiO2.
Notes
Worked Example 19.2
Keywords
carbon dioxide, silica
19-02-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 19.3
Caption
The organic solvent acetone has the molecular formula (CH3)2CO. The silicon analogue, a thermally stable lubricant, is a polymer, [(CH3)2SiO]n. Account for the difference in structure:
Notes
Key concept problem 19.3
Keywords
acetone, dimethylsiloxane
19-02-09UN
Title
The Group 3A elements
Caption
The group 3A elements: boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium.
Notes
The group 3A elements have three valence electrons and typically assume +3 oxidation state when forming compounds.
Keywords
group 3A
19-02-11UN
Title
Boron
Caption
Periodic table highlighting boron.
Notes
"Boron is a relatively rare element, accounting for only about 0.001 of the earth's crust by mass."
Keywords
boron, group 3A
19-02-13UN
Title
Boron halides
Caption
The boron halides are Lewis acids because they have a vacant 2p orbital.
Notes
The boron halides are highly reactive, volatile, covalent compounds that adopt a trigonal planar geometry.
Keywords
boron halides
19-02-14UN
Title
Diborane and ethane
Caption
Comparison of the bonding and structure of diborane and ethane.
Notes
The diborane molecule has a structure in which two BH2 groups are connected by two bridging H atoms. The structure differs from that of ethane and is unusual because hydrogen normally forms only one bond.
Keywords
diborane
19-03
Title
Diborane
Caption
Figure 19.3 Three-center bonding molecular orbitals in diborane. Each of the two MOs (one shown darker than the other) is formed by overlap of an sp3 hybrid orbital on each B atom and the 1s orbital on one bridging H atom. Each MO contains one pair of electrons and accounts for the bonding in one B-H-B bridge.
Notes
Hybridization and bonding in the diborane molecule.
Keywords
diborane
19-03-01UN
Title
The Group 4A elements
Caption
The Group 4A elements: carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead.
Notes
The group 4A elements have four valence electrons and may adopt various oxidation states from -4 to +4 in compounds.
Keywords
group 4A
19-03-02UN
Title
Carbon
Caption
Periodic table highlighting carbon.
Notes
Carbon, although the second most abundant element in living organisms, accounts for only 0.02 of the mass of the earth's crust. Different forms of elemental carbon have very different properties: diamond is an electrical insulator, but graphite is an electrical conductor.
Keywords
carbon
19-03-03
Title
Carbon nanotubes
Caption
A carbon nanotube has walls made of graphite sheets rolled into a cylinder and hemispherical tips made of a portion of a fullerene molecule.
Notes
This allotrope of carbon is stronger than steel. Some nanotubes have metallic properties and conduct electricity better than copper.
Keywords
carbon, nanotubes
19-03-06UN
Title
Silicon
Caption
Periodic table highlighting silicon.
Notes
Silicon is a hard, gray, semiconducting solid that melts at 1410oC and crystallizes in a diamondlike structure.
Keywords
silicon
19-04a
Title
Purification of silicon
Caption
Figure 19.4 (a) Purification of silicon by zone refining. The heater coil sweeps the molten zone and the impurities to the lower end of the rod. After the rod has cooled, the impurities are removed by cutting off the rod’s lower end. (b) A rod of ultrapure silicon and silicon wafers cut from the rod. Silicon wafers are used to produce the integrated-circuit chips found in solid-state electronic devices.
Notes
Purification of silicon by zone refining.
Keywords
silicon
19-05
Title
Silicon oxides
Caption
Figure 19.5 (a) A view of the SiO44-anion showing the tetrahedral SiO4 structural unit. (b) A tetrahedron is used as a shorthand representation of the SiO44-anion. An O atom is located at each corner of the tetrahedron and the Si atom is at the center. (c) A view of the Si2O76-anion. (d) A shorthand representation of the Si2O76- anion. The corner shared by the two tetrahedra represents a shared O atom.
Notes
Models showing the tetrahedral structure of silicon oxides
Keywords
silicon oxides
19-06c
Title
Silicates
Caption
Figure 19.6 Samples of the silicate minerals: (a) emerald, a green beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) with about 2% Cr3+ions substituting for Al3+, and (b) diopside (CaMgSi2O6). A shorthand representation of the structure of (c) the cyclic anion Si6O1812-in beryl and (d) the infinitely extended chain anion (Si2O64-)n in diopside. Note that the number of negative charges on the Si2O64-repeating unit equals the number of terminal (unshared) O atoms in that unit (four).
Notes
Structures and examples of silicates
Keywords
silicates
19-07c
Title
Asbestos and mica
Caption
Figure 19.7 (a) Asbestos is a fibrous material because of its chain structure. (b) Mica cleaves into thin sheets because of its two-dimensional layer structure. (c) A shorthand representation of the double-stranded chain anion (Si4O116-)n in asbestos minerals. Two of the single-stranded chains of Figure 19.6d are laid side by side, and half of the SiO4 tetrahedra share an additional O atom. (d) The layer anion (Si4O104-)n in mica is formed by the sharing of three O atoms per SiO4 tetrahedron. Note again that the number of negative charges on each repeating unit equals the number of terminal O atoms in that unit.
Notes
The fibrous structure of asbestos versus the two-dimensional sheet layer structure of mica
Keywords
silicates, asbestos, mica
19-07-01UN
Title
Quartz and orthoclase
Caption
Both quartz and orthoclase are structurally similar to SiO2. However, their molecular differences result in different crystalline structures and colors.
Notes
Quartz and orthoclase
Keywords
silicates
19-07-02UN
Title
Worked Example 19.3
Caption
The following pictures represent silicate anions. What is the formula and charge of each anion?
Notes
Worked Example 19.3
Keywords
silicates
19-07-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 19.7
Caption
The following pictures represent silicate anions. What are the formula and charge of the anion in (a) and the repeating unit of the chain anion in (b)?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 19.7
Keywords
silicates
19-07-04UN
Title
More of Group 4A
Caption
Periodic table highlighting the group 4A elements germanium, tin, and lead.
Notes
Although these three elements have relatively low natural abundances in the earth's crust, tin and lead are concentrated in workable deposits and are readily extracted from their ores.
Keywords
germanium, tin, lead
19-07-07UN
Title
Group 5A elements
Caption
Periodic table highlighting the group 5A elements: nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.
Notes
The group 5A elements
Keywords
group 5A
19-07-09UN
Title
Nitrogen
Caption
Periodic table highlighting nitrogen.
Notes
Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that makes up 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume.
Keywords
nitrogen
19-07-11UN
Title
Oxidation states of nitrogen and representative compounds
Caption
Table 19.6 Oxidation States of Nitrogen and Representative Compounds
Notes
Table for Oxidation States of Nitrogen and Representative Compounds
Keywords
nitrogen
19-07-12UN
Title
Ammonia
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of ammonia, NH3.
Notes
Simple nitrogen compound with a tetrahedral electronic geometry and trigonal pyramid molecular geometry.
Keywords
nitrogen, ammonia
19-07-13UN
Title
Hydrazine
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of hydrazine, N2H4.
Notes
Structure of hydrazine
Keywords
nitrogen, hydrazine
19-07-14UN
Title
Nitrous oxide
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of nitrous oxide, N2O.
Notes
Structure of nitrous oxide
Keywords
nitrogen, nitrous oxide
19-07-15UN
Title
Nitric oxide
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of nitric oxide, NO.
Notes
Structure of nitric oxide
Keywords
nitrogen, nitric oxide
19-07-16UN
Title
Nitrogen dioxide
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of nitrogen dioxide, NO2.
Notes
Structure of nitrogen dioxide
Keywords
nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide
19-08-01UN
Title
Nitrous acid
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of nitrous acid, HNO2.
Notes
Structure of nitrous acid
Keywords
nitrogen, nitrous acid
19-08-02UN
Title
Nitric acid
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of nitric acid, HNO3.
Notes
Structure of nitric acid
Keywords
nitrogen, nitric acid
19-08-04UN
Title
Phosphorus
Caption
Periodic table highlighting phosphorus.
Notes
Phosphorus is the most abundant of the group 5A elements
Keywords
phosphorus
19-091
Title
Allotropes of phosphorus
Caption
Figure 19.9 Red phosphorus (left), and white phosphorus stored underwater (right).
Notes
White phosphorus is a highly reactive allotrope—a molecular solid that is soluble in nonpolar solvents and ignites when exposed to air. Red phosphorus is a polymeric allotrope that is less soluble than white phosphorus and less reactive.
Keywords
phosphorus, allotropes
19-10
Title
White phosphorus
Caption
Figure 19.10 One equilateral triangular face of a tetrahedral P4 molecule showing the 60° bond angles and the 90° angles between the p orbitals. The relatively poor orbital overlap in the bent bonds accounts for the high reactivity of white phosphorus.
Notes
Strained bonding in white phosphorus accounts for its high reactivity
Keywords
white phosphorus
19-10-01UN
Title
Phosphine
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of phosphine, PH3.
Notes
Structure of phosphine, a colorless, extremely poisonous gas
Keywords
phosphine
19-10-02UN
Title
Phosphorus halides
Caption
Ball-and-stick models of phosphorus trichloride and phosphorus pentachloride.
Notes
Phosphorus reacts with halogens to produce phosphorus(III) halides and phosphorus(V) halides.
Keywords
phosphorus halides
19-10-04UN
Title
Oxides of phosphorus
Caption
Structures of tetraphosphorus hexoxide and tetraphosphorus decoxide.
Notes
When phosphorus burns in air or oxygen, it yields tetraphosphorus hexoxide, P4O6, or tetraphosphorus decoxide, P4O10, depending on the amount of oxygen present.
Keywords
phosphorus oxides
19-10-06UN
Title
Oxoacids of phosphorus
Caption
Structures of phosphorous acid (H3PO3) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4).
Notes
Phosphorous acid is a weak diprotic acid, since only two of its three hydrogen atoms are bonded to oxygen atoms. Phosphoric acid is a weak triprotic acid, since all three hydrogen atoms are bonded to oxygen atoms.
Keywords
phosphorus, oxoacids
19-10-07UN
Title
Polyphosphoric acids
Caption
Condensation of phosphoric acid into diphosphoric acid (pyrophosphoric acid).
Notes
Heating phosphoric acid results in a condensation of the molecules with elimination of water to form dimers, trimers, and higher polymers of phosphoric acid.
Keywords
polyphosphoric acids
19-10-10UN
Title
The Group 6A elements
Caption
Periodic table highlighting the Group 6A elements: oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium.
Notes
The group 6A elements
Keywords
group 6A elements
19-10-14UN
Title
Sulfur
Caption
Periodic table highlighting sulfur.
Notes
Sulfur is the sixteenth most abundant element in the earth's crust and is one of the ten most abundant elements in the human body.
Keywords
sulfur
19-10-17UN
Title
Sulfur allotropes
Caption
Structure of the most stable allotrope of sulfur: rhombic sulfur, a yellow crystalline solid that contains crown-shaped S8 rings.
Notes
Rhombic sulfur
Keywords
sulfur, allotropes
19-11-01UN
Title
Plastic sulfur
Caption
Above its melting point, sulfur exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity due to the opening of the S8 rings, yielding S8 chains that form long polymeric chains.
Notes
Formation of plastic sulfur
Keywords
sulfur
19-11-02UN
Title
Hydrogen sulfide
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of hydrogen sulfide, H2S.
Notes
Structure of hydrogen sulfide, an extremely toxic, colorless, foul-smelling gas.
Keywords
hydrogen sulfide
19-11-04UN
Title
Oxides of sulfur
Caption
Ball-and-stick models of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).
Notes
Structures of sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide
Keywords
sulfur oxides
19-11-06UN
Title
Sulfuric acid
Caption
Structure and ball-and-stick model of sulfuric acid, H2SO4.
Notes
Sulfuric acid
Keywords
sulfuric acid
19-12
Title
Uses of sulfuric acid
Caption
Figure 19.12 Uses of sulfuric acid in the United States.
Notes
Sulfuric acid, the world's most important industrial chemical
Keywords
sulfuric acid
19-12-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 19.10
Caption
Consider the following sulfur-containing oxoanions: (a) write the formula for each oxoanion including its charge, (b) which is the stongest acid?, (c) which is the strongest base?, (d) which is the weakest base?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 19.10
Keywords
sulfur oxoanions
19-12-02UN
Title
The halogens
Caption
Periodic table highlighting the group 7A elements (the halogens): fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
Notes
The halogens are the most electronegative group of elements in the periodic table.
Keywords
halogens
19-12-03UN
Title
Oxoacids of iodine
Caption
Structures of paraperiodic acid (H5IO6) and metaperiodic acid (HIO4).
Notes
Metaperiodic acid is a strong monoprotic acid, while paraperiodic acid is a weak polyprotic acid.
Keywords
iodine, oxoacids
19-13
Title
Photocopying
Caption
Figure 19.13 The photocopying process. A selenium-coated rotating drum is given a uniform positive charge (step 1) and is then exposed to an image (step 2). Negatively charged toner particles are attracted to the charged areas of the drum (step 3), and the image is transferred from the drum to a sheet of paper (step 4). Heating then fixes the image, and the drum is flooded with light and cleaned to ready the machine for another cycle (step 5).
Notes
Schematic of the photocopying process
Keywords
photocopying, xerography
19-13-01UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
The Main Group Elements key concept summary.
Notes
Key Concept Summary for Chapter 19
Keywords
key concept, summary
19-13-010UN
Title
Periodic Table template
Caption
Empty template of the periodic table.
Notes
Periodic table template for use with Key Concept Problems 19.13, 19.14, and 19.15
Keywords
periodic table
19-13-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 19.16
Caption
Consider the six second-and third-row elements in groups 5A-7A of the periodic table:
Notes
Key concept problem 19.16
Keywords
key concept, allotropes, structure
19-13-05UN
Title
Molecular structures
Caption
Possible molecular structures for common allotropes of the six second-and third-row elements in groups 5A-7A in the periodic table.
Notes
Molecular structures accompanying Key Concept Problem 19.16
Keywords
key concept, structures
19-13-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 19.17
Caption
The following models represent the structures of binary oxides of second-and third-row elements in their highest oxidation states:
Notes
Key Concept Problem 19.17
Keywords
key concept, binary oxides
19-13-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 19.18
Caption
The following models represent the structures of binary hydrides of second-row elements:
Notes
Key Concept Problem 19.18
Keywords
key concept, binary hydrides
19-13-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 19.19
Caption
The following pictures represent various silicate anions. Give the formula and charge of each anion.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 19.19 shorthand representations of silicate anions: (a) SiO44-(b) Si3O108-(c) Si4O128-
Keywords
key concept, silicates
19-TB01
Title
Table 19.1 The Top 10 Chemicals (2001 U.S. Production)
Caption
Notes
Keywords
19-TB02
Title
Table 19.2 Properties of Metallic and Nonmetallic Elements
Caption
Notes
Keywords
19-TB03
Title
Table 19.3 Properties of the Group 3A Elements
Caption
Notes
Keywords
19-TB04
Title
Table 19.4 Properties of the Group 4A Elements
Caption
Notes
Keywords
19-TB05
Title
Table 19.5 Properties of the Group 5A Elements
Caption
Notes
Keywords
19-TB07
Title
Table 19.7 Properties of the Group 6A Elements
Caption
Notes
Keywords
19-TB08
Title
Table 19.8 Oxoacids of the Halogens
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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