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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 14
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water

 
14-00-04
Title
Preparation of hydrogen
Caption
Redox reaction between zinc metal and aqueous acid to produce hydrogen gas and an aqueous zinc salt solution.
Notes
Preparation of hydrogen from H+
Keywords
hydrogen
14-01
Title
Apparatus for hydrogen gas synthesis
Caption
Figure 14.1 Preparation of hydrogen by reaction of zinc metal with dilute acid. The H2 gas, which is nearly insoluble in water, displaces the water in the collection vessel.
Notes
Apparatus for hydrogen gas synthesis
Keywords
hydrogen, apparatus, synthesis
14-02
Title
Binary hydrides
Caption
Figure 14.2 Formulas and melting points (°C) of the simplest hydrides of the main-group elements. The group 1A and the heavier group 2A hydrides, shown in blue, are ionic, while the other main-group hydrides, shown in red, are covalent. The change in bond type, however, is gradual and continuous. Transition metal hydrides (not shown) are classified as metallic. The letter “d” indicates decomposition rather than melting on heating to the indicated temperature. The existence of InH3 and TlH3 is uncertain.
Notes
Formulas and melting points for simple binary hydrides
Keywords
hydrides
14-03
Title
Structure of an interstitial hydride
Caption
Figure 14.3 One plane of the structure of an interstitial metallic hydride. The metal atoms (larger spheres) have a face-centered cubic structure, and the hydrogen atoms (smaller spheres) occupy interstices (holes) between the metal atoms.
Notes
Crystal lattice of a simple metal hydride
Keywords
interstitial, hydride
14-03-02UN
Title
Worked Example 14.1
Caption
Write the balanced net ionic equation for reaction of each the following metal hydrides with water: (a) Lithium hydride; (b) Barium hydride.
Notes
Worked Example 14.1
Keywords
hydride, reactivity
14-03-05UN
Title
Key Concept Example 14.3
Caption
The following pictures represent binary hydrides AHx, where A = K, Ti, C, or F. Ivory spheres represent H atoms or ions, and burgundy spheres represent atoms or ions of element A.
Notes
Key Concept Example 14.3
Keywords
key concept, hydrides
14-03-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.6
Caption
The following pictures represent binary hydrides AHx, where A = Br, Li, P, or Zr. Ivory spheres represent H atoms or ions, and burgundy spheres represent atoms or ions of element A.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.6
Keywords
key concept, hydrides
14-04
Title
Pi bonding with oxygen
Caption
Figure 14.4 Pi overlap between the p orbitals of oxygen and other atoms. (a) With a second-row atom, such as carbon, oxygen forms a strong pi bond. (b) With a larger atom, such as silicon, oxygen tends not to form pi bonds because the longer Si-O distance and the larger, more diffuse silicon orbitals result in poor pi overlap.
Notes
Pi bonding between oxygen and other atoms
Keywords
oxygen, pi bond
14-06
Title
Acid-base properties of oxides
Caption
Figure 14.6 Formulas, acid-base properties, and the covalent-ionic character of the oxides of main-group elements in their highest oxidation states. Basic oxides are shown in blue, acidic oxides are shown in red, and amphoteric oxides are shown in violet.
Notes
Correlation of acid-base properties with covalent-ionic character of main-group oxides
Keywords
acid-base, covalent-ionic, oxides
14-07
Title
Melting points of oxides
Caption
Figure 14.7 Melting points (in kelvins) of oxides of the third-period elements in their highest oxidation states. (No melting point is given for Na2O because it sublimes and has a vapor pressure of 1 atm at 1548 K.)
Notes
Trend in the observed melting points of oxides of the third-period elements
Keywords
melting point, oxides
14-07-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.9
Caption
Look at the location of elements A, B, and C in the periodic table shown ...
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.9
Keywords
key concept, oxide, ionic-covalent, acid-base
14-07-04UN
Title
Dissolution of sodium peroxide
Caption
Dissolution of sodium peroxide in water that contains phenolphthalein gives a red color because of the formation of OH-ions.
Notes
Dissolution of sodium peroxide in water produces a basic solution
Keywords
sodium peroxide, dissolution, base
14-07-07UN
Title
Worked Example 14.5
Caption
What is the oxidation number of oxygen in each of the following compounds? Tell whether the compound is an oxide, a peroxide, or a superoxide.
Notes
Worked Example 14.5
Keywords
oxide, peroxide, superoxide
14-07-09UN
Title
Hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent
Caption
Hydrogen peroxide reacts with bromide ion in aqueous acid to produce water and molecular bromine.
Notes
Hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent
Keywords
hydrogen peroxide, oxidizer
14-07-10UN
Title
Hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent
Caption
Hydrogen peroxide reacts with permanganate ion in aqueous acid to produce molecular oxygen, water, and manganese(II) ion.
Notes
Hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent
Keywords
hydrogen peroxide, reducer
14-08
Title
Reactions of hydrogen peroxide
Caption
Figure 14.8 Some reactions of hydrogen peroxide. (a) Addition of a colorless aqueous solution of H2O2 to a colorless acidic solution of NaBr produces a yellow-orange color due to the formation of bromine, Br2. (b) Addition of aqueous H2O2 to a violet acidic solution of KMnO4 produces (c) bubbles of O2 gas and decolorizes the solution as the violet MnO4-ion is converted to the nearly colorless Mn2+ion.
Notes
Reactions of hydrogen peroxide
Keywords
hydrogen peroxide, oxidizer, reducer
14-08-01UN
Title
Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
Caption
Since hydrogen peroxide can behave as both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent, it can oxidize and reduce itself. This decomposition yields water and molecular oxygen as the products.
Notes
Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas
Keywords
hydrogen peroxide, decomposition
14-09
Title
Catalysis of hydrogen peroxide decomposition
Caption
Figure 14.9 When a few drops of blood are added to aqueous hydrogen peroxide (left), the hydrogen peroxide decomposes rapidly, evolving bubbles of oxygen that produce a thick foam (right). The reaction is catalyzed by catalase, an enzyme present in blood.
Notes
Catalysis of hydrogen peroxide decomposition
Keywords
hydrogen peroxide, decomposition, catalysis
14-10
Title
Ozone generator
Caption
Figure 14.10 Generator for preparing ozone. A stream of O2 gas flows through the ozonizer tube and is partially converted to O3 when an electric discharge passes through the gas.
Notes
Generator for preparing ozone.
Keywords
ozone
14-11
Title
Purification of drinking water
Caption
Figure 14.11 Purification of drinking water.
Notes
Purification of drinking water
Keywords
water purification
14-11-02UN
Title
Reactivity of water with metals
Caption
Water reacts with the alkali metals (Group 1A) and alkaline earth metals (Group 2A) to produce hydrogen gas and basic aqueous solutions of the metal cations.
Notes
Reactivity of water with Group 1A and 2A metals
Keywords
water, reactivity, metals
14-11-03UN
Title
Reactivity of water with halogens
Caption
Fluorine oxidizes water to yield molecular oxygen and hydrofluoric acid. Chlorine does not oxidize water but it does disproportionate to produce a solution of hydrochloric and hypochlorous acids.
Notes
Reactivity of water with the halogens
Keywords
water, reactivity, halogens
14-12
Title
Hydrates
Caption
Figure 14.12 Octahedral structure of the Mg(H2O)62+cation. (a) A regular octahedron is a polyhedron that has eight equilateral triangular faces and six vertices. (b) Octahedral structure of the hydrated metal cation in [Mg(H2O)6](ClO4)2. The six Mg-O bonds point toward the six vertices of a regular octahedron. (c) A view of the Mg(H2O)62+cation showing only the location of the atoms and the octahedral arrangement of the bonds to the six H2O molecules.
Notes
Solid compounds that contain water molecules are called hydrates
Keywords
hydrates
14-14-001UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water key concept summary.
Notes
Key concept summary Chapter 14
Keywords
key concept, summary
14-14-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.20
Caption
In the following pictures of binary hydrides, ivory spheres represent H atoms or ions, and burgundy spheres represent atoms or ions of the other element.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.20
Keywords
key concept, hydrides
14-14-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.21
Caption
Look at the location of elements A, B, C, and D in the following periodic table.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.21
Keywords
key concept, binary hydrides
14-14-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.22
Caption
The following molecular orbital energy-level diagram shows the energies and electron occupancies of the MOs derived from the atomic 2p orbitals for an oxygen-containing binary compound of potassium.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.22
Keywords
key concept, peroxides, superoxides
14-14-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.23
Caption
Inthe following pictures of oxides, red spheres represent O atoms or ions, and green spheres represent atoms or ions of a second-or third-row element in its highest oxidation state.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.23
Keywords
key concept, oxides
14-14-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.25
Caption
Look at the location of elements A, B, C, and D in the following periodic table.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.25
Keywords
key concept, oxides, acid-base, ionic-covalent
14-14-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.26
Caption
The following pictures represent structures of the hydrides of four second-row elements.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.26
Keywords
key concept, hydrides
14-14-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 14.27
Caption
The following pictures represent the structures of oxides of carbon and sulfur. Which has the stronger bonds? Explain.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 14.27
Keywords
key concept, oxides
14-TB01
Title
Table 14.1 Properties of Hydrogen Isotopes
Caption
Notes
Keywords
14-TB02
Title
Table 14.2 Bond and Magnetic Properties of Diatomic Oxygen Species
Caption
Notes
Keywords
14-TB03
Title
Table 14.3 Major Ionic Constituents of Seawater
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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