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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 10
Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes

 
10-01a-c
Title
Gases, Liquids, and Solids
Caption
Figure 10.1 A molecular comparison of gases, liquids, and solids. (a) In gases, the particles feel little attraction for one another and are free to move about randomly. (b) In liquids, the particles are held close together by attractive forces but are free to move over one another. (c) In solids, the particles are rigidly held in an ordered arrangement.
Notes
Three phases of matter
Keywords
gas, liquid, solid
10-01-01UN
Title
Dipole Moments
Caption
Differences in electronegativity result in polar covalent bonds in a molecule and yield a bond dipole. Depending on the number and orientation of the bond dipoles, the molecule may possess an overall molecular dipole.
Notes
Dipole moments and polar covalent bonds
Keywords
dipole, polar covalent
10-01-02UN
Title
Ammonia and water
Caption
Structures and dipole moments for ammonia and water are shown.
Notes
Bond and molecular dipoles for ammonia and water
Keywords
dipole, polar, ammonia, water
10-01-03UN
Title
Carbon dioxide and tetrachloromethane
Caption
Structures and dipole moments are shown for carbon dioxide and tetrachloromethane. Although each molecule has bond dipoles, they do not have molecular dipoles.
Notes
Bond and molecular dipoles for carbon dioxide and tetrachloromethane
Keywords
dipole, carbon dioxide, tetrachloromethane
10-01-05UN
Title
Vinyl chloride
Caption
The geometry around each carbon is trigonal planar and the molecule as a whole is planar. Only the C-Cl bond has a substantial polarity, so there is a bond dipole and a molecular dipole.
Notes
Structure and dipole for vinyl chloride, Worked Example 10.2
Keywords
vinyl chloride, dipole
10-01-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.3
Caption
Ball-and-stick structure of methanol, CH3OH.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.3
Keywords
key concept, dipole
10-01-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.4
Caption
Ball-and-stick structure and electrostatic potential map for methylamine, CH3NH2.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.4
Keywords
key concept, dipole
10-02
Title
Liquid Nitrogen
Caption
Figure 10.2 (a) In an individual N2 molecule, the atoms are held together by the strong intramolecular force we call a covalent bond. Different N2 molecules are weakly attracted to one another at low temperature by intermolecular forces, causing nitrogen to become liquid. (b) At a higher temperature, intermolecular forces are no longer able to keep molecules close together, so nitrogen becomes a gas.
Notes
Liquid and gaseous states of nitrogen
Keywords
intermolecular force, nitrogen
10-03
Title
Ion-dipole forces
Caption
Figure 10.3 Polar molecules orient toward ions so that (a) the positive end of the dipole is near an anion and (b) the negative end of the dipole is near a cation.
Notes
Ion-dipole intermolecular forces
Keywords
intermolecular force, ion-dipole
10-04
Title
Dipole-dipole forces
Caption
Figure 10.4 (a) Polar molecules attract one another and approach closely when oriented with unlike charges together, but (b) they repel one another and push apart when oriented with like charges together.
Notes
Dipole-dipole intermolecular forces
Keywords
intermolecular force, dipole-dipole
10-04-01UN
Title
Butane and Acetone
Caption
Structures and physical properties for butane and acetone are compared. Although their molecular masses are identical, their physical properties vary greatly due to the differences in intermolecular forces present for each molecule.
Notes
Structure, intermolecular forces, and physical properties
Keywords
intermolecular forces, physical properties
10-04-02UN
Title
Benzene
Caption
Although benzene has no molecular dipole and no appreciable bond dipoles, the molecule still has a relatively high boiling point. The intermolecular forces present in a sample of this molecule arise from the motion of electrons and are called London dispersion forces.
Notes
Structure and physical properties of benzene
Keywords
benzene, London dispersion forces
10-05
Title
London dispersion forces
Caption
Using molecular bromine as an example, each molecule has zero polarity. However, due to the motion of electrons at any given instant a temporary dipole would arise that would then induce a dipole in an adjacent molecule. This type of intermolecular attraction is called London dispersion forces.
Notes
London dispersion forces are found in all molecules
Keywords
London dispersion forces
10-06
Title
Pentane and 2,2-dimethylpropane
Caption
Figure 10.6 (a) Longer, less compact molecules like pentane feel stronger dispersion forces and have consequently higher boiling points than (b) more compact molecules like 2,2-dimethylpropane.
Notes
The two molecules have the same molecular formula, yet have very different physical properties due to the type and quantity of the intermolecular forces
Keywords
structure, intermolecular forces
10-06-01UN
Title
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Caption
The two long molecular strands that are coiled around each other in DNA are held together by hydrogen bonding.
Notes
Hydrogen bonding is a strong intermolecular force
Keywords
hydrogen bond, hydrogen bonding
10-06-02UN
Title
Hydrogen bonding
Caption
Hydrogen bonds are also found between molecules of water and molecules of ammonia. They are defined as the attractive interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to a very electronegative atom (O, N, or F) and an unshared electron pair on another electronegative atom.
Notes
Hydrogen bonding in water and ammonia
Keywords
hydrogen bond, hydrogen bonding
10-07
Title
Hydrogen bonding in water
Caption
Figure 10.7 Liquid water contains a vast three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds resulting from the attraction between positively polarized hydrogens and electron pairs on negatively polarized oxygens. Each oxygen can form two hydrogen bonds, represented by dotted lines.
Notes
Hydrogen bonding in water
Keywords
hydrogen bonds, water
10-07-01UN
Title
Boiling points of covalent binary hydrides
Caption
Table 10.4 Boiling points of the Covalent Binary Hydrides of Groups 4A, 5A, 6A, and 7A.
Notes
Trends in the boiling points of covalent binary hydrides show the anomalous behavior of NH3, H2O, and HF due to their hydrogen-bonding intermolecular forces.
Keywords
binary hydrides, hydrogen bonds
10-08
Title
Surface tension in liquid mercury
Caption
Figure 10.8 Surface tension, which causes these drops of liquid mercury to form beads, is due to the different forces experienced by atoms on the surface and those in the interior. Atoms on the surface are less stable because they have fewer neighbors and feel fewer attractive forces than atoms in the interior, so the liquid acts to minimize their number by minimizing the area of the surface.
Notes
Surface tension in liquid mercury, causing it to 'bead'
Keywords
mercury, surface tension
10-09
Title
Enthalpy and entropy of phase changes
Caption
Figure 10.9 Changes from a less random phase to a more random one have positive values of DH and DS. Changes from a more random phase to a less random one have negative values of DH and DS.
Notes
Enthalpy and entropy increase as matter changes from solid to liquid to gas.
Keywords
enthalpy, entropy, phase change
10-10
Title
Heating curve for water
Caption
Figure 10.10 A heating curve for H2O, showing the temperature changes and phase transitions that occur when heat is added. The plateau at 0°C represents the melting of solid ice, and the plateau at 100°C represents the boiling of liquid water.
Notes
Plateau regions in a heating curve indicate a change in phase of the substance where the temperature remains constant
Keywords
heating curve, water, phase change
10-11
Title
Evaporation and vapor pressure
Caption
Figure 10.11 Liquids after sitting for a length of time in (a) an open container and (b) a closed container. The liquid in the open container has evaporated, but the liquid in the closed container has brought about a rise in pressure.
Notes
Evaporation of a liquid results in more gas phase molecules which exert a pressure in a closed container
Keywords
evaporation, vapor pressure
10-12
Title
Molecular kinetic energies of a liquid
Caption
Figure 10.12 The distribution of molecular kinetic energies in a liquid at two temperatures. Only the faster-moving molecules have sufficient kinetic energy to escape from the liquid and enter the vapor. The higher the temperature, the larger the number of molecules with enough energy to escape.
Notes
Distribution of molecules with respect to their kinetic energies at two different temperatures
Keywords
kinetic energy, vapor pressure
10-12-01UN
Title
The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
Caption
The inverse relationship between ln Pvap and temperature is linear according to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Notes
Linear relationship between Pvap and (1/T)
Keywords
Clausius-Clapeyron, heat of vaporization
10-13
Title
Vapor Pressure and Temperature
Caption
Figure 10.13 (a) The vapor pressures of water, ethanol, and diethyl ether show a nonlinear rise when plotted as a function of temperature. (b) A plot of ln Pvap versus 1/T (Kelvin) for water, prepared from the data in Table 10.8, shows a linear relationship.
Notes
The slope of the plot of ln Pvap and (1/T) is proportional to the heat of vaporization of the liquid.
Keywords
Clausius-Clapeyron equation, vapor pressure, temperature
10-15
Title
Crystalline solids
Caption
Figure 10.15 Crystal structures of (a) ice, a molecular solid, and (b) quartz, a covalent network solid. Ice consists of individual H2O molecules held together in a regular manner by hydrogen bonds. Quartz (SiO2) is essentially one very large molecule whose Si and O atoms are linked by covalent bonds. Each silicon atom has tetrahedral geometry and is bonded to four oxygens; each oxygen has approximately linear geometry and is bonded to two silicons. The shorthand representation on the right shows how SiO4 tetrahedra join at their corners to share oxygen atoms.
Notes
Crystal structures of ice and quartz
Keywords
crystalline solids, covalent network
10-16
Title
X-ray diffraction
Caption
Figure 10.16 An X-ray diffraction experiment. A beam of X rays is passed through a crystal and allowed to strike a photographic film. The rays are diffracted by atoms in the crystal, giving rise to a regular pattern of spots on the film.
Notes
X-ray diffraction experiment yielding a pattern on photographic film
Keywords
X-ray diffraction, crystallography
10-17
Title
Interference of electromagnetic waves
Caption
Figure 10.17 Interference of electromagnetic waves. (a) Constructive interference occurs if the waves are in-phase and produces a wave with increased intensity. (b) Destructive interference occurs if the waves are out-of-phase and results in cancellation.
Notes
Constructive and destructive interference of electromagnetic waves
Keywords
X-ray diffraction, interference
10-18
Title
Diffraction of X rays
Caption
Figure 10.18 Diffraction of X rays of wavelength l from atoms in the top two layers of a crystal. Rays striking atoms in the second layer travel a distance equal to BC +CB' farther than rays striking atoms in the first layer. If this distance is a whole number of wavelengths, the reflected rays are in-phase and interfere constructively. Knowing the angle q then makes it possible to calculate the distance d between the layers.
Notes
Data from X-ray diffraction and the Bragg equation can be used to calculate the distance between any two atoms in a crystal
Keywords
crystallography, diffraction, Bragg equation
10-20
Title
Cubic Packing
Caption
Figure 10.20 (a) In simple cubic packing of spheres, all the layers are identical and all atoms are lined up in stacks and rows. Each sphere is touched by six neighbors, four in the same layer, one directly above, and one directly below. (b) In body-centered cubic packing of spheres, the spheres in layer a are separated slightly and the spheres in layer b are offset so that they fit into the depressions between atoms in layer a. Each sphere is touched by eight neighbors, four in the layer below and four in the layer above.
Notes
Simple cubic and body-centered cubic packing
Keywords
simple cubic, body-centered cubic
10-21UN
Title
Hexagonal and Cubic Closest-Packing
Caption
Figure 10.21 (a) In hexagonal closest-packing of spheres, there are two alternating hexagonal layers a and b offset from each other so that the spheres in one layer sit in the small triangular depressions of neighboring layers. (b) In cubic closest-packing of spheres, there are three alternating hexagonal layers, a, b, and c, offset from one another so that the spheres in one layer sit in the small triangular depressions of neighboring layers. In both kinds of closest-packing, each sphere is touched by 12 neighbors, 6 in the same layer, 3 in the layer above, and 3 in the layer below.
Notes
Hexagonal closest-packing and cubic closest-packing arrangements
Keywords
closest-packing
10-22
Title
Cubic Unit Cells
Caption
Figure 10.22 Geometries of (a) primitive-cubic and (b) body-centered cubic unit cells in both a skeletal view (top) and a space-filling view (bottom). Part (c) shows how eight primitive-cubic unit cells stack together to share a common corner where they meet.
Notes
Simple cubic (1 total atom) and body-centered cubic (2 total atoms) unit cells
Keywords
simple cubic, body-centered cubic, unit cell
10-23
Title
Face-centered cubic unit cell
Caption
Figure 10.23 (a) Geometry of a face-centered cubic unit cell, and (b) a view showing how this unit cell is found in cubic closest-packing. The faces are tilted at 54.7° angles to the three repeating atomic layers.
Notes
Face-centered cubic unit cell contains 4 total atoms and arises from the cubic closest-packing arrangement.
Keywords
face-centered cubic, unit cells
10-23-01UN
Title
Unit cells and atomic radii
Caption
Example 10.8 diagram illustrates how to use the cubic unit cell. Unit cell edge lengths and atomic radii are related through simple geometry.
Notes
Unit cells and atomic radii
Keywords
unit cell, atomic radii, edge length
10-23-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.14
Caption
Imagine a tiled floor in the pattern shown. Identify the smallest repeating unit, analogous to a two-dimensional unit cell.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.14
Keywords
key concept, unit cell
10-24
Title
Unit Cell of NaCl
Caption
Figure 10.24 The unit cell of NaCl in both (a) a skeletal view and (b) a space-filling view in which one face of the unit cell is viewed head-on. The larger chloride anions adopt a face-centered cubic unit cell, with the smaller sodium cations fitting into the holes between adjacent anions.
Notes
The unit cell of NaCl results from the cubic closest-packing of sodium ions and chloride ions.
Keywords
unit cell, face-centered cubic, NaCl
10-25
Title
Unit cells of CuCl and BaCl2
Caption
Figure 10.25 Unit cells of (a) CuCl and (b) BaCl2. Both are based on a face-centered cubic arrangement of one ion, with the other ion tetrahedrally surrounded in holes. In CuCl, only alternating holes are filled, while in BaCl2, all holes are filled.
Notes
Unit cells of CuCl and BaCl2
Keywords
unit cells
10-25-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.16
Caption
Rhenium oxide crystallizes in the following cubic unit cell.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.16
Keywords
key concept, unit cell
10-26
Title
Allotropes of carbon
Caption
Figure 10.26 Two crystalline allotropes of carbon: (a) Graphite is a covalent network solid consisting of two-dimensional sheets of six-membered rings. The atoms in each sheet are offset slightly from the atoms in the neighboring sheets. (b) Diamond is a vast, three-dimensional array of sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, each of which is bonded with tetrahedral geometry to four other carbons.
Notes
Graphite and diamond are two crystalline allotropes of carbon
Keywords
carbon, allotropes
10-27
Title
More Carbon Allotropes
Caption
Figure 10.27 Fullerene, C60, is a molecular solid whose molecules have the shape of a soccer ball. The ball has 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal faces, and each carbon atom is sp2-hybridized.
Notes
Fullerene is an allotrope of carbon that looks like a soccer ball, while carbon nanotubes are an allotrope with qualities similar to fullerene and graphite.
Keywords
fullerene, nanotubes, allotropes
10-28
Title
Phase diagram for water
Caption
Figure 10.28 A phase diagram for H2O, showing a negative slope for the solid/liquid boundary. Various features of the diagram are discussed in the text. Note that the pressure and temperature axes are not drawn to scale.
Notes
Phase diagram shows melting points, boiling points, triple point, and critical point
Keywords
phase diagram, water
10-29
Title
Phase diagram for carbon dioxide
Caption
Figure 10.29 A phase diagram for CO2, showing a positive slope for the solid/liquid boundary. The pressure and temperature axes are not to scale.
Notes
Phase diagram shows melting points, boiling points, triple point, and critical point
Keywords
phase diagram, carbon dioxide
10-30-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.19
Caption
Gallium metal has the following phase diagram.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.19
Keywords
key concept, phase diagram
10-30-03UN
Title
Liquid Crystals
Caption
Two of the most common liquid crystal phases are the nematic phase, in which the ends of the molecules are randomly arranged, and the smectic phase, in which the molecules are arranged in layers.
Notes
Liquid crystals and their common phases.
Keywords
liquid crystals, nematic, smectic
10-31
Title
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
Caption
Figure 10.31 A liquid-crystal display (LCD), whose operation is explained in the text.
Notes
Schematic of the liquid-crystal display
Keywords
LCD, liquid crystals
10-31-01UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Liquids, solids, and phase changes key concept summary.
Notes
Key concept summary Chapter 10
Keywords
key concept summary
10-31-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.22
Caption
Electrostatic potential map of ethyl acetate.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.22
Keywords
key concept, polarity, dipole
10-31-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.23
Caption
Identify each of the following kinds of packing.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.23
Keywords
key concept, crystal packing
10-31-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.24
Caption
Zinc sulfide, or sphalerite, crystallizes in the following cubic unit cell.
Notes
Key concept problem 10.24
Keywords
key concept, unit cell
10-31-05UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.25
Caption
Perovskite, a mineral containing calcium, oxygen, and titanium, crystallizes in the following cubic unit cell.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 10.25
Keywords
key concept, unit cell
10-31-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.26
Caption
The phase diagram of a substance is shown.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 10.26
Keywords
key concept, phase diagram
10-31-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 10.29
Caption
The following phase diagram of elemental carbon has three different solid phases in the region shown.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 10.29
Keywords
key concept, phase diagram
10-31-10UN
Title
Problem 10.113
Caption
Niobium oxide crystallizes in the following cubic unit cell.
Notes
Problem 10.113
Keywords
unit cell
10-31-11UNPr10.116
Title
Problem 10.116
Caption
The heating curve of Substance X.
Notes
Problem 10.116
Keywords
heating curve, phase diagram
10-TB01
Title
Table 10.1 Dipole Moments of Some Common Compounds
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB02
Title
Table 10.2 Comparison of Molecular Masses, Dipole Moments, and Boiling Points
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB03
Title
Table 10.3 Melting Points and Boiling Points of the Halogens
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB05
Title
Table 10.5 A Comparison of Intermolecular Forces
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB06
Title
Table 10.6 Viscosities and Surface Tensions of Some Common Substances at 20°C
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB07
Title
Table 10.7 Heats of Fusion and Heats of Vaporization for Some Common Compounds
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB08
Title
Table 10.8 Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB09
Title
Table 10.9 Types of Crystalline Solids and Their Characteristics
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB10
Title
Table 10.10 Summary of the Four Kinds of Packing for Spheres
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB10.01UN
Title
Temp (K)(mm Hg)1/T
Caption
Notes
Keywords
10-TB10.02UN
Title
Temp (K)(mm Hg)1/T
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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