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Key Concepts PowerPoint

## Chapter 9Gases: Their Properties and Behavior

09-00-01UN
 Title Composition of Dry Air at Sea Level Caption Table 9.1 Composition of dry air at sea level. Notes Composition of dry air at sea level Keywords gases, air composition
09-01
 Title Gas Pressure Caption Figure 9.1 (a) A gas is a large collection of particles moving at random throughout a volume that is primarily empty space. (b) Collisions of randomly moving particles with the walls of the container exert a force per unit area that we perceive as gas pressure. Notes Gas pressure Keywords gases, pressure
09-02
 Title Atmospheric pressure Caption Figure 9.2 A column of air 1.00 m2 in cross-sectional area extending from the earth’s surface through the upper atmosphere has a mass of about 10,300 kg, producing an atmospheric pressure of approximately 101,000 Pa. Notes Atmospheric pressure (101 kPa) Keywords pressure, atmospheric pressure
09-03
 Title Mercury barometer Caption Figure 9.3 A mercury barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure by determining the height of a mercury column supported in a sealed glass tube. The downward pressure of the mercury in the column is exactly balanced by the outside atmospheric pressure that presses down on the mercury in the dish and pushes it up the column. Notes Mercury barometer, atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg Keywords barometer, atmospheric pressure
09-04a, b
 Title Open-end manometer Caption Figure 9.4 Open-end manometers for measuring pressure in a gas-filled bulb. In (a), the pressure in the bulb is lower than atmospheric, so the mercury level is higher in the arm open to the bulb; in (b), the pressure in the bulb is higher than atmospheric, so the mercury level is higher in the arm open to the atmosphere. Notes Pressure of a gas versus atmospheric pressure Keywords manometer, gas pressure
09-04-02UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 9.4 Caption What is the pressure of the gas inside the apparatus (in mm Hg) if the outside pressure is 750 mm Hg? Notes Key concept problem 9.4 Keywords gas pressure, manometer
09-05
 Title Boyle's Law Caption Figure 9.5 Boyle’s law. At constant n and T, the volume of a gas decreases proportionately as its pressure increases. If the pressure is doubled, the volume is halved. Notes Volume is inversely proportional to pressure Keywords Boyle's law, volume, pressure
09-06
 Title Plot of Boyle's Law Caption Figure 9.6 Boyle’s law. (a) A plot of V versus P for a gas sample is a hyperbola, but (b) a plot of V versus 1/P is a straight line. Such a straight-line graph is characteristic of equations having the form y = mx +b. Notes Linear relationship of V vs. (1/P) Keywords Boyle's law, volume, pressure
09-06-01UN
 Title Pressure-Volume data Caption Table 9.2 Pressure-Volume Measurements on a Gas Sample. Notes Pressure and volume data for a gas sample Keywords pressure, volume, Boyle's law
09-07
 Title Charles' Law Caption Figure 9.7 Charles’ law. At constant n and P, the volume of a gas increases proportionately as its absolute temperature increases. If the absolute temperature is doubled, the volume is doubled. Notes Volume is directly proportional to temperature Keywords Charles' law, volume, temperature
09-07-02UN
 Title Temperature-Volume data Caption Table 9.3 Temperature-Volume Measurements on a Gas Sample at Constant n, P. Notes Temperature and volume measurements for a gas sample Keywords Charles' law, temperature, volume
09-08
 Title Plot of Charles' law Caption Figure 9.8 Charles’ law. A plot of V versus T for a gas sample is a straight line that can be extrapolated to absolute zero. Notes Linear relationship of volume versus temperature Keywords Charles' law, volume, temperature
09-09
 Title Avogadro's Law Caption Figure 9.9 Avogadro’s law. At constant T and P, the volume of a gas increases proportionately as its molar amount increases. If the molar amount is doubled, the volume is doubled. Notes Volume and amount of gas (# of moles) are directly proportional Keywords Avogadro's law, volume, moles, amount
09-09-01UN
 Title Worked Example 9.3 Caption Show the approximate level of the movable piston in drawings (a) and (b) after the indicated changes have been made to the initial gas sample. Notes Worked example 9.3 Keywords gas laws
09-09-02UN
 Title Answer to Example 9.3 Caption Answer to Example 9.3 showing the piston levels. Notes Answer to Example 9.3, using the gas laws Keywords gas laws
09-09-04UN T04
 Title Molar Volumes of Real Gases Caption Table 9.4 Molar volumes of some real gases at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Notes Molar volumes of gases Keywords molar volume, STP
09-09-06UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 9.10 Caption Show the approximate level of the movable piston in drawings (a), (b), and (c) after the indicated changes have been made to the gas. Notes Key concept problem 9.10 Keywords key concept, gas laws
09-10-03UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 9.17 Caption What is the partial pressure of each gas—red, yellow, and green—if the total pressure inside the following container is 600 mm Hg? Notes Key concept problem 9.17 Keywords mole fraction, partial pressure
09-11a-d
 Title Gas law summary Caption Figure 9.11 (a) Decreasing the volume of the gas at constant n and T increases the frequency of collisions with the container walls and therefore increases the pressure (Boyle’s law). (b) Increasing the temperature (kinetic energy) at constant n and P increases the volume of the gas (Charles’ law). (c) Increasing the amount of gas at constant T and P increases the volume (Avogadro’s law). (d) Changing the identity of some gas molecules at constant T and V has no effect on the pressure (Dalton’s law). Notes Gas laws visual summary Keywords gas laws
09-11-01UNT05
 Title Average Speed of Some Molecules Caption Table 9.5 Average speed (m/s) of some molecules at 25oC. Notes Average speed versus molecular mass Keywords velocity, molecular mass, kinetic-molecular theory
09-13
 Title Diffusion and Effusion Caption Figure 9.13 (a) Diffusion is the mixing of gas molecules by random motion under conditions where molecular collisions occur. (b) Effusion is the escape of a gas through a pinhole without molecular collisions. Notes Diffusion versus Effusion Keywords Graham's law, diffusion, effusion
09-14
 Title Behavior of Real Gases Caption Figure 9.14 The volume taken up by the gas particles themselves is less important at lower pressure (a) than at higher pressure (b). As a result, the volume of a real gas at high pressure is somewhat larger than the ideal value. Notes Real gas behavior deviates from that of an ideal gas Keywords real gas, ideal gas
09-15
 Title Attraction between gas particles Caption Figure 9.15 Molecules attract one another at distances up to about 10 molecular diameters. The result of the attraction is a decrease in the actual volume of most real gases when compared with ideal gases at pressures up to 300 atm. Notes Real gas behavior versus ideal gas behavior Keywords real gas, ideal gas
09-16
 Title Altitude, Pressure, and Temperature Caption Figure 9.16 Variations of (a) atmospheric pressure and (b) average temperature with altitude. Four regions of the earth’s atmosphere can be defined based on the temperature variations. Notes Pressure and temperature changes with respect to altitude Keywords pressure, temperature, altitude
09-17
 Title Concentration of atmospheric CO2 Caption Figure 9.17 Concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased dramatically in the last century as a result of increased fossil fuel use. Though the consequences to date have been small, atmospheric scientists worry that global atmospheric warming may soon occur. Notes A plot of atmospheric CO2 concentration versus time (years) Keywords carbon dioxide, greenhouse
09-18-02UN
 Title Halothane Caption Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery. Notes Halothane Keywords Halothane
09-18-03UN
 Title Enflurane Caption Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery. Notes Enflurane Keywords Enflurane
09-18-04UN
 Title Isoflurane Caption Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery. Notes Isoflurane Keywords Isoflurane
09-18-05UN
 Title Methoxyflurane Caption Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery. Notes Methoxyflurane Keywords Methoxyflurane
09-18-050UN
 Title Key Concept Summary Caption Gases: Their properties and behavior key concept summary. Notes Key concept summary for Chapter 9 Keywords key concept, summary
09-18-07UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 9.27 Caption Assume that you have a sample of gas at 350 K in a sealed container, as represented in (a). Which of the drawings (b)-(d) represents the gas after the temperature is lowered from 350 K to 150 K? Notes Key concept problem 9.27 Keywords key concept, gas, temperature
09-18-08UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 9.28 Caption Assume that you have a mixture of He (atomic mass = 4 amu) and Xe (atomic mass = 131 amu) at 300 K. Which of the drawings best represents the mixture (blue = He; green = Xe)? Notes Key concept problem 9.28 Keywords key concept
09-18-10UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 9.30 Caption The apparatus shown is called a closed-end manometer because the arm not connected to the gas sample is closed to the atmosphere and is under vacuum. Explain how you can read the gas pressure in the bulb. Notes Key concept problem 9.30 Keywords key concept, manometer, pressure
09-18-14UN
 Title Diagram for Problem 9.99 Caption The apparatus shown consists of three bulbs connected by stopcocks. What is the pressure inside the system when the stopcocks are opened? Assume that the lines connnecting the bulbs have zero volume and that the termperature remains constant. Notes Problem 9.99 Keywords gas laws, pressure
09-TB06
 Title Table 9.6 Relative Potency of Inhaled Anesthetics Caption Notes Keywords

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