back

Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 9
Gases: Their Properties and Behavior

 
09-00-01UN
Title
Composition of Dry Air at Sea Level
Caption
Table 9.1 Composition of dry air at sea level.
Notes
Composition of dry air at sea level
Keywords
gases, air composition
09-01
Title
Gas Pressure
Caption
Figure 9.1 (a) A gas is a large collection of particles moving at random throughout a volume that is primarily empty space. (b) Collisions of randomly moving particles with the walls of the container exert a force per unit area that we perceive as gas pressure.
Notes
Gas pressure
Keywords
gases, pressure
09-02
Title
Atmospheric pressure
Caption
Figure 9.2 A column of air 1.00 m2 in cross-sectional area extending from the earth’s surface through the upper atmosphere has a mass of about 10,300 kg, producing an atmospheric pressure of approximately 101,000 Pa.
Notes
Atmospheric pressure (101 kPa)
Keywords
pressure, atmospheric pressure
09-03
Title
Mercury barometer
Caption
Figure 9.3 A mercury barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure by determining the height of a mercury column supported in a sealed glass tube. The downward pressure of the mercury in the column is exactly balanced by the outside atmospheric pressure that presses down on the mercury in the dish and pushes it up the column.
Notes
Mercury barometer, atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg
Keywords
barometer, atmospheric pressure
09-04a, b
Title
Open-end manometer
Caption
Figure 9.4 Open-end manometers for measuring pressure in a gas-filled bulb. In (a), the pressure in the bulb is lower than atmospheric, so the mercury level is higher in the arm open to the bulb; in (b), the pressure in the bulb is higher than atmospheric, so the mercury level is higher in the arm open to the atmosphere.
Notes
Pressure of a gas versus atmospheric pressure
Keywords
manometer, gas pressure
09-04-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 9.4
Caption
What is the pressure of the gas inside the apparatus (in mm Hg) if the outside pressure is 750 mm Hg?
Notes
Key concept problem 9.4
Keywords
gas pressure, manometer
09-05
Title
Boyle's Law
Caption
Figure 9.5 Boyle’s law. At constant n and T, the volume of a gas decreases proportionately as its pressure increases. If the pressure is doubled, the volume is halved.
Notes
Volume is inversely proportional to pressure
Keywords
Boyle's law, volume, pressure
09-06
Title
Plot of Boyle's Law
Caption
Figure 9.6 Boyle’s law. (a) A plot of V versus P for a gas sample is a hyperbola, but (b) a plot of V versus 1/P is a straight line. Such a straight-line graph is characteristic of equations having the form y = mx +b.
Notes
Linear relationship of V vs. (1/P)
Keywords
Boyle's law, volume, pressure
09-06-01UN
Title
Pressure-Volume data
Caption
Table 9.2 Pressure-Volume Measurements on a Gas Sample.
Notes
Pressure and volume data for a gas sample
Keywords
pressure, volume, Boyle's law
09-07
Title
Charles' Law
Caption
Figure 9.7 Charles’ law. At constant n and P, the volume of a gas increases proportionately as its absolute temperature increases. If the absolute temperature is doubled, the volume is doubled.
Notes
Volume is directly proportional to temperature
Keywords
Charles' law, volume, temperature
09-07-02UN
Title
Temperature-Volume data
Caption
Table 9.3 Temperature-Volume Measurements on a Gas Sample at Constant n, P.
Notes
Temperature and volume measurements for a gas sample
Keywords
Charles' law, temperature, volume
09-08
Title
Plot of Charles' law
Caption
Figure 9.8 Charles’ law. A plot of V versus T for a gas sample is a straight line that can be extrapolated to absolute zero.
Notes
Linear relationship of volume versus temperature
Keywords
Charles' law, volume, temperature
09-09
Title
Avogadro's Law
Caption
Figure 9.9 Avogadro’s law. At constant T and P, the volume of a gas increases proportionately as its molar amount increases. If the molar amount is doubled, the volume is doubled.
Notes
Volume and amount of gas (# of moles) are directly proportional
Keywords
Avogadro's law, volume, moles, amount
09-09-01UN
Title
Worked Example 9.3
Caption
Show the approximate level of the movable piston in drawings (a) and (b) after the indicated changes have been made to the initial gas sample.
Notes
Worked example 9.3
Keywords
gas laws
09-09-02UN
Title
Answer to Example 9.3
Caption
Answer to Example 9.3 showing the piston levels.
Notes
Answer to Example 9.3, using the gas laws
Keywords
gas laws
09-09-04UN T04
Title
Molar Volumes of Real Gases
Caption
Table 9.4 Molar volumes of some real gases at standard temperature and pressure (STP).
Notes
Molar volumes of gases
Keywords
molar volume, STP
09-09-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 9.10
Caption
Show the approximate level of the movable piston in drawings (a), (b), and (c) after the indicated changes have been made to the gas.
Notes
Key concept problem 9.10
Keywords
key concept, gas laws
09-10-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 9.17
Caption
What is the partial pressure of each gas—red, yellow, and green—if the total pressure inside the following container is 600 mm Hg?
Notes
Key concept problem 9.17
Keywords
mole fraction, partial pressure
09-11a-d
Title
Gas law summary
Caption
Figure 9.11 (a) Decreasing the volume of the gas at constant n and T increases the frequency of collisions with the container walls and therefore increases the pressure (Boyle’s law). (b) Increasing the temperature (kinetic energy) at constant n and P increases the volume of the gas (Charles’ law). (c) Increasing the amount of gas at constant T and P increases the volume (Avogadro’s law). (d) Changing the identity of some gas molecules at constant T and V has no effect on the pressure (Dalton’s law).
Notes
Gas laws visual summary
Keywords
gas laws
09-11-01UNT05
Title
Average Speed of Some Molecules
Caption
Table 9.5 Average speed (m/s) of some molecules at 25oC.
Notes
Average speed versus molecular mass
Keywords
velocity, molecular mass, kinetic-molecular theory
09-13
Title
Diffusion and Effusion
Caption
Figure 9.13 (a) Diffusion is the mixing of gas molecules by random motion under conditions where molecular collisions occur. (b) Effusion is the escape of a gas through a pinhole without molecular collisions.
Notes
Diffusion versus Effusion
Keywords
Graham's law, diffusion, effusion
09-14
Title
Behavior of Real Gases
Caption
Figure 9.14 The volume taken up by the gas particles themselves is less important at lower pressure (a) than at higher pressure (b). As a result, the volume of a real gas at high pressure is somewhat larger than the ideal value.
Notes
Real gas behavior deviates from that of an ideal gas
Keywords
real gas, ideal gas
09-15
Title
Attraction between gas particles
Caption
Figure 9.15 Molecules attract one another at distances up to about 10 molecular diameters. The result of the attraction is a decrease in the actual volume of most real gases when compared with ideal gases at pressures up to 300 atm.
Notes
Real gas behavior versus ideal gas behavior
Keywords
real gas, ideal gas
09-16
Title
Altitude, Pressure, and Temperature
Caption
Figure 9.16 Variations of (a) atmospheric pressure and (b) average temperature with altitude. Four regions of the earth’s atmosphere can be defined based on the temperature variations.
Notes
Pressure and temperature changes with respect to altitude
Keywords
pressure, temperature, altitude
09-17
Title
Concentration of atmospheric CO2
Caption
Figure 9.17 Concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased dramatically in the last century as a result of increased fossil fuel use. Though the consequences to date have been small, atmospheric scientists worry that global atmospheric warming may soon occur.
Notes
A plot of atmospheric CO2 concentration versus time (years)
Keywords
carbon dioxide, greenhouse
09-18-02UN
Title
Halothane
Caption
Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery.
Notes
Halothane
Keywords
Halothane
09-18-03UN
Title
Enflurane
Caption
Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery.
Notes
Enflurane
Keywords
Enflurane
09-18-04UN
Title
Isoflurane
Caption
Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery.
Notes
Isoflurane
Keywords
Isoflurane
09-18-05UN
Title
Methoxyflurane
Caption
Inhaled anesthetic agents are used to prepare patients for surgery.
Notes
Methoxyflurane
Keywords
Methoxyflurane
09-18-050UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Gases: Their properties and behavior key concept summary.
Notes
Key concept summary for Chapter 9
Keywords
key concept, summary
09-18-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 9.27
Caption
Assume that you have a sample of gas at 350 K in a sealed container, as represented in (a). Which of the drawings (b)-(d) represents the gas after the temperature is lowered from 350 K to 150 K?
Notes
Key concept problem 9.27
Keywords
key concept, gas, temperature
09-18-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 9.28
Caption
Assume that you have a mixture of He (atomic mass = 4 amu) and Xe (atomic mass = 131 amu) at 300 K. Which of the drawings best represents the mixture (blue = He; green = Xe)?
Notes
Key concept problem 9.28
Keywords
key concept
09-18-10UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 9.30
Caption
The apparatus shown is called a closed-end manometer because the arm not connected to the gas sample is closed to the atmosphere and is under vacuum. Explain how you can read the gas pressure in the bulb.
Notes
Key concept problem 9.30
Keywords
key concept, manometer, pressure
09-18-14UN
Title
Diagram for Problem 9.99
Caption
The apparatus shown consists of three bulbs connected by stopcocks. What is the pressure inside the system when the stopcocks are opened? Assume that the lines connnecting the bulbs have zero volume and that the termperature remains constant.
Notes
Problem 9.99
Keywords
gas laws, pressure
09-TB06
Title
Table 9.6 Relative Potency of Inhaled Anesthetics
Caption
Notes
Keywords

© 2004 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
A Pearson Company
Distance Learning at Prentice Hall
Legal Notice