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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 6
Ionic Bonds and Some Main-Group Chemistry

 
06-01
Title
Cationic radii
Caption
"Figure 6.1 Radii of (a) group 1A atoms and their cations; (b) group 2A atoms and their cations. The cations are smaller than the neutral atoms both because the principal quantum number of the valence-shell electrons is smaller for the cations and because Zeff is larger.
Notes
Atomic versus ionic radii for Group 1A and Group 2A metals
Keywords
ions, ionic radii, cations
06-02
Title
Anionic radii
Caption
Figure 6.2 Radii of the group 7A atoms (halogens) and their anions. The anions are larger than the neutral atoms because of additional electron-electron repulsions and a decrease in Zeff.
Notes
Atomic versus ionic radii for Group 7A (halogens)
Keywords
ions, ionic radii, anions
06-02-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.4
Caption
Assign the identity represented by each sphere from among the following: K+ion, K atom, Cl-ion.
Notes
Key concept problem 6.4
Keywords
key concept, ionic radii, atomic radii
06-02-02UN
Title
Ionization energy
Caption
The amount of energy required to remove the highest-energy electron from an isolated neutral atom in the gaseous state is the atom's ionization energy.
Notes
Ionization energy of hydrogen
Keywords
ionization
06-03
Title
Ionization energies
Caption
Figure 6.3 Ionization energies of the first 92 elements. There is an obvious periodicity to the data, with maximum values for the noble gas elements and minimum values for the alkali metals. Note that all the values are positive, meaning that energy is always required to remove an electron from an atom.
Notes
Ionization energy versus atomic number
Keywords
ionization energy, periodicity
06-04
Title
Ionization energies
Caption
Figure 6.4 A three-dimensional display showing how ionization energies increase from left to right across a row and decrease from top to bottom down a group of the periodic table. The elements at the lower left therefore have the smallest Ei values, and the elements at the upper right have the largest.
Notes
Ionization energy of the elements
Keywords
ionization, periodicity
06-05
Title
Ionization energies
Caption
Figure 6.5 Ionization energies of the first 20 elements. The group 2A elements (Be, Mg, and Ca) have slightly larger Ei values than might be expected, and the group 6A elements (O and S) have slightly smaller values than might be expected.
Notes
Ionization energy versus atomic number for the first 20 elements
Keywords
ionization energy, periodicity
06-05-01UN
Title
Ionization energy
Caption
Within a given energy level, more energy is required to remove an electron from an s orbital than is required to remove an electron from a p orbital.
Notes
Ionization energy trends
Keywords
ionization, orbitals
06-05-02UN
Title
Ionization energies
Caption
Within a set of orbitals at the same energy level, more energy is required to remove an electron from a half-filled orbital than from a filled orbital.
Notes
Ionization energy trends
Keywords
ionization, orbitals
06-05-03UN
Title
Ionization energies
Caption
Table 6.2 Successive ionization energies
Notes
Ionization energies
Keywords
ionization
06-05-05UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.8
Caption
Order the indicated three elements according to the ease with which each is likely to lose its third electron.
Notes
Key concept problem 6.8
Keywords
key concept, ionization
06-06
Title
Electron affinity
Caption
Figure 6.6 Measured electron affinities for elements 1-57 and 72-86. A negative value means that energy is released when an electron adds to an atom, while a value of zero means that energy is absorbed but the exact amount can’t be measured experimentally. Note that the group 2A elements (alkaline earths) and the group 8A elements (noble gases) have Eea values near zero, while the group 7A elements (halogens) have large negative Eea’s. Accurate electron affinities are not known for elements 58-71.
Notes
Electron affinity versus atomic number
Keywords
electron affinity, periodicity
06-06-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.8
Caption
Which of the indicated three elements has the least favorable Eea, and which has the most favorable Eea?
Notes
Key concept problem 6.8
Keywords
key concept, electron affinity
06-07
Title
Formation of sodium chloride
Caption
Figure 6.7 When sodium atoms transfer electrons to chlorine atoms, crystals of the ionic solid sodium chloride are formed. In the sodium chloride crystal, each Na+ ion is surrounded by six nearest-neighbor Cl-ions, and each Cl-ion is surrounded by six nearest-neighbor Na+ ions.
Notes
Formation of sodium chloride, an ionic solid, and its crystalline structure
Keywords
ions, ionic bond, ionic solid
06-08
Title
The Born-Haber cycle
Caption
Figure 6.8 A Born-Haber cycle for the formation of NaCl(s) from Na(s) and Cl2(g). The sum of the individual energy changes for the five steps is equal to the net energy change for the overall reaction. Note that the most favorable step is the formation of solid NaCl from gaseous Na+and Cl-ions (step 5).
Notes
The Born-Haber cycle for NaCl formation
Keywords
Born-Haber, lattice energy
06-08-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.13
Caption
One of the following pictures represents NaCl and one represents MgO. Which is which, and which has the larger lattice energy?
Notes
Key concept problem 6.13
Keywords
key concept, lattice energy
06-08-03UN
Title
The Alkali metals
Caption
The alkali metals, Group 1A, yield +1 cations upon ionization.
Notes
Alkali metals
Keywords
alkali metals, ionization
06-08-12UN
Title
The Alkaline Earth metals
Caption
The alkaline earth metals, Group 2A, yield +2 cations upon ionization.
Notes
The alkaline earth metals
Keywords
alkaline earth metals, ionization
06-09
Title
The Born-Haber cycle for MgCl2 formation
Caption
Figure 6.9 A Born-Haber cycle for the formation of MgCl2 from the elements. The large contribution from ionic bonding in the solid (step 5) provides more than enough energy to remove two electrons from magnesium (step 3).
Notes
Particularly note Step 4, which requires the formation of Cl-ion from a Cl atom to be multiplied by a factor of 2 (including the electron affinity energy value)
Keywords
Born-Haber, energy
06-09-05UN
Title
Group 3A elements
Caption
The Group 3A elements form +3 ions upon ionization.
Notes
Group 3A metals and semimetals
Keywords
elements, metals, semimetals, ionization
06-09-08UN
Title
The Halogens
Caption
The halogens, Group 7A, form -1 ions upon gaining an electron.
Notes
The halogens, Group 7A
Keywords
halogens, ions
06-09-14UN
Title
The Noble gases
Caption
The noble gases, Group 8A, tend not to form compounds and were formerly known as the 'inert gases.' However, a few of them (most notably xenon) have been found to form compounds with fluorine.
Notes
The noble gases
Keywords
noble gases
06-09-16UN
Title
Structures of three compounds of xenon and fluorine
Caption
Structures for XeF2, XeF4, and XeF6. More information concerning the geometries of these compounds will be presented in Chapter 7.
Notes
Structures of xenon-fluorine compounds
Keywords
noble gas, xenon, compounds
06-09-17UN
Title
The Octet Rule
Caption
Atoms tend to gain or lose electrons in order to attain an electron configuration resembling a noble gas. Since the outermost shell in these cases is comprised of an s orbital and three p orbitals, the maximum number of electrons in the valence shell is eight (the octet).
Notes
The octet rule and noble gas electron configuration
Keywords
octet rule, electron configuration
06-10
Title
Octet and "Expanded Octet"
Caption
Figure 6.10 The octet rule occasionally fails for the shaded main-group elements. These elements, all of which are in the third row or lower, can use low-energy unfilled d orbitals to expand their valence shell beyond the normal octet.
Notes
The octet rule is effective for those elements that do not have access to low-energy d orbitals.
Keywords
octet rule, expanded octet
06-10-010UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Ionic bonds and some main-group chemistry key concept summary.
Notes
Key concept summary, chapter 6
Keywords
key concept, summary
06-10-02UN
Title
Periodic table template
Caption
Outline of the periodic table.
Notes
Template can be used for Key Concept Problems 6.27, 6.29, and 6.30
Keywords
key concept, elements, radii, ionization, electron affinity
06-10-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.31
Caption
Which sphere likely represents a metal and which a nonmetal? Which sphere represents a cation and which an anion?
Notes
Key concept problem 6.31
Keywords
key concept, electron affinity, ionization, ionic radii
06-10-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.32
Caption
Diagrams for Key Concept Problem 6.32.
Notes
Key concept problem 6.32
Keywords
key concept, elements, ions, compounds
06-10-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.33
Caption
Diagrams for Key Concept Problem 6.33.
Notes
Key concept problem 6.33
Keywords
key concept, lattice energy
06-10-09UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 6.34
Caption
Periodic table diagram for Key Concept Problem 6.34.
Notes
Key concept problem 6.34
Keywords
key concept, binary compounds, oxidation number
06-TB01
Title
Table 6.1 Some Common Main-Group Ions and Their Noble Gas Electron Configurations
Caption
Notes
Keywords
06-TB03
Title
Table 6.3 Lattice Energies of Some Ionic Solids (kJ/mol)
Caption
Notes
Keywords
06-TB04
Title
Table 6.4 Properties of Alkali Metals
Caption
Notes
Keywords
06-TB05
Title
Table 6.5 Properties of Alkaline Earth MTable 6.6 Properties of Group 3A Elements etals
Caption
Notes
Keywords
06-TB06
Title
Table 6.6 Properties of Group 3A Elements
Caption
Notes
Keywords
06-TB07
Title
Table 6.7 Properties of Halogens
Caption
Notes
Keywords
06-TB08
Title
Table 6.8 Properties of Noble Gases
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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