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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 5
Periodicity and Atomic Structure

 
05-01
Title
Periodicity: atomic radius versus atomic number
Caption
Figure 5.1 A graph of atomic radius in picometers (pm) versus atomic number shows a rise-and-fall pattern of periodicity. The maxima occur for atoms of group 1A elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr); the minima occur for atoms of the group 7A elements. Accurate data are not available for the group 8A elements.
Notes
atomic radius vs. atomic number
Keywords
periodicity, atomic radius, atomic number
05-02
Title
Mendeleev's periodic table
Caption
Figure 5.2 A portion of Mendeleev’s periodic table, giving the atomic masses known at the time and showing some of the “holes” representing unknown elements. There is an unknown element (which turned out to be gallium, Ga) beneath aluminum (Al) and another one (which turned out to be germanium, Ge) beneath silicon (Si).
Notes
Portion of Mendeleev's periodic table
Keywords
periodic table, Mendeleev
05-03
Title
The electromagnetic spectrum
Caption
Figure 5.3 The electromagnetic spectrum consists of a continuous range of wavelengths and frequencies, from radio waves at the low-frequency end to gamma rays at the high-frequency end. The familiar visible region accounts for only a small portion near the middle of the spectrum. Note that waves in the X-ray region have a length that is approximately the same as the diameter of an atom (10-10 m).
Notes
Electromagnetic spectrum—a continuous range of wavelengths and frequencies
Keywords
electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength, frequency
05-04
Title
Wavelength and amplitude
Caption
Figure 5.4 Electromagnetic waves are characterized by a wavelength, a frequency, and an amplitude. (a) Wavelength (l) is the distance between two successive wave peaks, and frequency (n) is the number of wave peaks that pass a fixed point per unit time. Amplitude is the height of the maximum measured from the center line. (b) What we perceive as different kinds of electromagnetic radiation are simply waves with different wavelengths and frequencies.
Notes
Electromagnetic waves: a) wavelength, peak, trough, and amplitude; b) violet light and infrared radiation
Keywords
wavelength, amplitude
05-04-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 5.3
Caption
(a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) Which wave represents a more intense beam of light? (c) Which wave represents blue light, and which represents red light?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 5.3
Keywords
key concept, wavelength, frequency
05-05
Title
Rainbows from white light
Caption
Figure 5.5 (a) When a narrow beam of ordinary white light is passed through a glass prism, different wavelengths travel through the glass at different rates and appear as different colors. (b) A similar effect occurs when light passes through water droplets in the air, forming a rainbow.
Notes
Prism and rainbow
Keywords
prism, rainbow, refraction
05-06
Title
Atomic line spectra
Caption
Figure 5.6 (a) The visible line spectrum of energetically excited sodium atoms consists of a closely spaced pair of yellow lines. (b) The visible line spectrum of excited hydrogen atoms consists of four lines, from indigo at 410 nm to red at 656 nm.
Notes
Atomic line spectra
Keywords
line spectra, wavelength, visible
05-07
Title
Blackbody radiation
Caption
Figure 5.7 The dependence of the intensity of blackbody radiation on wavelength at two different temperatures. Intensity increases from right to left on the curve as wavelength decreases. As the wavelength continues to decrease, intensity reaches a maximum and then drops off to zero.
Notes
Blackbody radiation
Keywords
blackbody, radiation, temperature
05-07-02UN
Title
Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and energy
Caption
Higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths correspond to higher energy radiation, while lower frequencies and longer wavelengths correspond to lower energy radiation.
Notes
Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and energy
Keywords
wavelength, frequency, energy
05-08
Title
The photoelectric effect
Caption
Figure 5.8 The photoelectric effect. A plot of the number of electrons ejected from a metal surface versus light frequency shows a threshold value. Increasing the intensity of the light while keeping the frequency the same increases the number of electrons ejected but does not change the threshold value.
Notes
The photoelectric effect—number of electrons ejected vs. light frequency
Keywords
photoelectric, photons, intensity
05-09
Title
Orbital energy levels
Caption
Figure 5.9 Orbital energy levels for (a) hydrogen and (b) a typical multielectron atom. The differences between energies of various subshells in (b) are exaggerated for clarity. Note, though, that there is some crossover of energies from one shell to another. In some atoms, a 3d orbital has a higher energy than a 4s orbital, for instance.
Notes
Orbital energy levels
Keywords
orbital, energy
05-10a-c
Title
Shapes of the s orbitals
Caption
Figure 5.10 Representations of (a) 1s, (b) 2s, and (c) 3s orbitals. Cutaway views of these spherical orbitals are shown on the top, with the probability of finding an electron represented by the density of the shading. Electron probability distribution plots of y2 as a function of distance from the nucleus are shown on the bottom. Note that the 2s orbital has buried within it a spherical surface of zero probability (a node), and the 3s orbital has within it two spherical surfaces of zero probability. The different colors of different regions in the 2s and 3s orbitals correspond to different algebraic signs of the wave function, analogous to the different phases of a wave, as explained in the text.
Notes
Shapes of the s orbitals
Keywords
orbital, shape, node
05-11
Title
Standing waves
Caption
Figure 5.11 (a) When a rope is fixed at one end and vibrated rapidly at the other, a standing wave is generated. (b) The wave has two phases of different algebraic sign, +and -, separated by zero-amplitude regions called nodes.
Notes
The wave has two phases of different algebraic sign, +and -, separated by zero-amplitude regions called nodes.
Keywords
wave, node
05-12
Title
Shapes of the p-orbitals
Caption
Figure 5.12 The three 2p orbitals. Part (a) is a plot giving the probability of finding a 2p electron as a function of its distance from the nucleus. Part (b) shows representations of the three 2p orbitals, each of which is dumbbell-shaped and oriented in space along one of the three coordinate axes x, y, or z. Each p orbital has two lobes of high electron probability separated by a nodal plane passing through the nucleus. The different shadings of the lobes reflect different algebraic signs analogous to the different phases of a wave.
Notes
Shapes of the p orbitals
Keywords
orbital, shape, orientation, node
05-13
Title
Shapes of the d orbitals
Caption
Figure 5.13 Representations of the five 3d orbitals. Four of the orbitals are shaped like a cloverleaf (a-d), and the fifth is shaped like an elongated dumbbell inside a donut (e). Also shown is one of the seven 4f orbitals (f). As with p orbitals in Figure 5.12, the different shadings of the lobes reflect different phases.
Notes
Shapes of the d orbitals
Keywords
orbital, shape, node, orientation
05-13-01UN
Title
Quantum numbers for orbitals
Caption
Key Concept Problem 5.15 Give a possible combinationof n and l quantum numbers for the orbital shown.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 5.15
Keywords
key concept, orbital, quantum number
05-14
Title
Electronic energy levels
Caption
Figure 5.14 The origin of atomic line spectra. (a) When an electron falls from a higher-energy outer-shell orbital to a lower-energy inner-shell orbital, it emits electromagnetic radiation whose frequency corresponds to the energy difference between the two orbitals. (The orbital radii are not drawn to scale.) (b) The different spectral series correspond to electronic transitions from outer-shell orbitals to different inner-shell orbitals.
Notes
Electronic energy levels: the Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen Series
Keywords
line spectra, energy, Paschen, Balmer, Lyman
05-14-01UN
Title
The Balmer-Rydberg equation
Caption
The Balmer-Rydberg equation.
Notes
The Balmer-Rydberg equation
Keywords
energy, wavelength, Rydberg
05-15
Title
The spin quantum number
Caption
Figure 5.15 Electrons behave in some respects as if they were tiny charged spheres spinning around an axis. This spin (blue arrow) gives rise to a tiny magnetic field (green arrow) and to a fourth quantum number, ms, which can have a value of either +1/2 or -1/2.
Notes
According to the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can possess the same four quantum numbers.
Keywords
electron, spin, magnetic
05-16
Title
Effective nuclear charge (Z)
Caption
Figure 5.16 The origin of electron shielding and Zeff . Outer electrons are attracted toward the nucleus by the nuclear charge but are pushed away by the repulsion of inner electrons. As a result, the nuclear charge actually felt by outer electrons is diminished, and we say that the outer electrons are shielded from the full charge of the nucleus by the inner electrons.
Notes
Electron shielding and Zeff : nucleus, attraction, repulsion, and outer electrons
Keywords
nuclear charge, shielding
05-16-01UN
Title
Relationship between Zeff and orbital type
Caption
An electron's attraction to the nucleus is correlated to the energy level and orbital type occupied by the electron.
Notes
Relationship between Zeff and orbital type
Keywords
nuclear charge, Zeff , orbital, energy
05-16-02UN
Title
Filling the orbitals
Caption
Follow the aufbau principle and Hund's rule in placing electrons in the appropriate orbitals of an atom.
Notes
Electron orbital-filling diagrams explicitly show the number of unpaired electrons; electron configurations do not.
Keywords
orbital, electron, aufbau, Hund
05-16-03UN
Title
Filling the orbitals
Caption
Follow the aufbau principle and Hund's rule in placing electrons in the appropriate orbitals of an atom.
Notes
Electron orbital-filling diagrams explicitly show the number of unpaired electrons; electron configurations do not.
Keywords
orbital, electron, aufbau, Hund
05-16-04UN
Title
Shorthand notation for electron configuration
Caption
To simplify the writing of lengthy electron configurations, the symbol of a noble gas may be substituted for the appropriately filled shells and orbitals.
Notes
Shorthand notation for electron configuration
Keywords
shorthand, electron, configuration
05-17
Title
Electron configurations of the elements
Caption
Figure 5.17 Outer-shell, ground-state electron configurations of the elements.
Notes
Electron configurations of the elements
Keywords
electron, configuration
05-18
Title
Orbital-filling blocks of the periodic table
Caption
Figure 5.18 Blocks of the periodic table, corresponding to filling the different kinds of orbitals. Beginning at the top left and going across successive rows of the periodic table provides a method for remembering the order of orbital filling: 1s --> 2s --> 2p --> 3s --> 3p --> 4s --> 3d --> 4p, and so on.
Notes
Regions of periodic table: s block, p block, d block, f block
Keywords
orbital, blocks, elements
05-18-02UN
Title
Key Concept Example 5.11
Caption
Identify the atom with the ground-state electron configuration shown.
Notes
Key Concept Example 5.11
Keywords
key concept, electron, configuration
05-18-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 5.19
Caption
Identify the atom whose ground-state electron configuration is shown.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 5.19
Keywords
key concept, electron, configuration
05-18-04UN
Title
Atomic radii
Caption
The atomic radius of an atom is taken to be one-half the distance between the nuclei of two of the same atoms bound to one another. Atomic radii for individual atoms can then be used to predict the bond length between two different atoms.
Notes
Atomic radii of Cl—Cl, C—C, and Cl—C
Keywords
atom radius, bond length
05-19
Title
Atomic radii of the elements
Caption
Figure 5.19 Atomic radii of the elements in picometers.
Notes
Periodic table atomic radii of elements (in picometers)
Keywords
atomic radius, atomic radii
05-20
Title
Periodicity of atomic radius, atomic number, and Zeff
Caption
Figure 5.20 Plots of Zeff for the highest-energy electron and atomic radius versus atomic number. As Zeff increases, the valence-shell electrons are attracted more strongly to the nucleus, and the atomic radius therefore decreases.
Notes
Atomic radius and Zeff plotted for atomic radius (pm) vs atomic number
Keywords
periodicity, atomic radius, atomic number, Zeff, nuclear charge
05-20-010UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Periodicity and atomic structure Key Concept Summary.
Notes
Key Concept Summary for Chapter 5
Keywords
key concept, summary
05-20-02UN
Title
Periodic table template
Caption
Notes
Can be used for Key Concept Problems 5.23 and 5.24
Keywords
periodic table, key concept
05-20-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 5.25
Caption
Two electromagnetic waves.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 5.25
Keywords
key concept, intensity, energy, wavelength
05-20-05UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 5.26
Caption
Orbital-filling diagram.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 5.26
Keywords
key concept, electron configuration
05-20-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 5.28
Caption
Three spheres representing Ca, Sr, and Br (not necessarily in that order).
Notes
Key Concept Problem 5.28
Keywords
key concept, atomic radius
05-20-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 5.29
Caption
Identify the orbitals and give quantum numbers for each.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 5.29
Keywords
key concept, orbital, quantum number
05-TB01
Title
Table 5.1 A Comparison of Predicted and Observed Properties for Gallium (eka-Aluminum) and Germanium (eka-Silicon)
Caption
Notes
Keywords
05-TB02
Title
Table 5.2 Allowed Combinations of Quantum Numbers n, l, and for the First Four Shells
Caption
Notes
Keywords
05-TB03
Title
Table 5.3 Valence-Shell Electron Configurations of Main-Group Elements
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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