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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 4
Reactions in Aqueous Solution

 
04-01
Title
Electrical conductivity of an ionic solution
Caption
Figure 4.1 A simple device to demonstrate the electrical conductivity of an ionic solution. (a) A solution of NaCl conducts electricity because of the movement of charged particles (ions), thereby completing the circuit and allowing the bulb to light. (b) A solution of sucrose does not conduct electricity or complete the circuit because it has no charged particles. The bulb therefore remains dark.
Notes
Electrical conductivity of an ionic solution
Keywords
conductivity, electrolytes
04-01-01UN
Title
Strong versus weak electrolytes
Caption
Strong electrolytes are characterized by their nearly complete dissociation in water, while weak electrolytes dissociate to a much smaller extent.
Notes
Strong versus weak electrolytes
Keywords
electrolyte, dissociation
04-01-02
Title
Strong and weak electrolytes
Caption
Key Concept Problem 4.3 From the diagrams shown, identify the strongest electrolyte and the weakest electrolyte.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.3
Keywords
key concept, electrolyte
04-01-05UN
Title
Diagrams for Worked Example 4.5
Caption
A mixture of anions and cations produces a precipitate. Which combinations of anions and cations are consistent with this result?
Notes
Worked Example 4.5
Keywords
key concept, precipitation
04-01-06UN
Title
Diagrams for Key Concept Problem 4.8
Caption
Which combinations of anions and cations would produce a precipitate as represented in the diagram?
Notes
Key concept problem 4.8
Keywords
key concept, precipitation
04-01-07UN
Title
Formation of hydronium ion
Caption
When acids dissociate in water, an acidic proton is transferred from the acid to the oxygen of a water molecule yielding the hydronium cation.
Notes
Formation of hydronium ion
Keywords
acid, hydronium
04-01-09UN
Title
Common acids and bases
Caption
Table 4.2 Some Common Acids and Bases.
Notes
Common acids and bases
Keywords
acid, base
04-01-10UN
Title
Diagrams for Key Concept Problem 4.10
Caption
Which of the three aqueous acids is the strongest and which is the weakest? (Water molecules are omitted for clarity.)
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.10
Keywords
acid strength
04-01-14
Title
Oxidation and reduction
Caption
The diagram illustrates how oxidation is characterized by the loss of electrons by a chemical species (atom or ion) versus reduction when the species gains electrons. The loss or gain of electrons is reflected in the change in oxidation number of the atom or ion.
Notes
Oxidation and reduction
Keywords
oxidation, reduction, oxidation number
04-01-18UN
Title
Predicting oxidation numbers
Caption
Metals are typically considered more 'cationlike' and would possess positive oxidation numbers, while nonmetals are considered more 'anionlike' and would possess negative oxidation numbers.
Notes
Oxidation numbers of metals versus nonmetals
Keywords
metal, nonmetal, oxidation number
04-01-26UN
Title
Rusting of iron
Caption
In this example, note how the elements start with an oxidation number = 0. The iron becomes oxidized to Fe3+and oxygen becomes reduced to O2-.
Notes
rusting of iron reaction: Fe undergoes oxidation from 0 to +3 and O underdgoes reduction from 0 to -2
Keywords
iron, oxidation, reduction
04-01-27UN
Title
Production of iron metal
Caption
In this reaction, oxygen maintains a -2 oxidation number throughout. Iron becomes reduced from +3 to 0 oxidation number, while carbon becomes oxidized from 0 to +4 state. The species that becomes reduced is called the oxidizing agent since it is accepting electrons from some other species. Conversely, the species that becomes oxidized is called the reducing agent since it is giving up electrons.
Notes
Production of iron metal from its ore
Keywords
oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent
04-01-29UN
Title
Oxidizers versus reducers
Caption
Those elements that tend to give up electrons (metals) are typically categorized as reducing agents and those that tend to accept electrons (nonmetals) are referred to as oxidizing agents.
Notes
Areas of periodic table where: reducing agents tend to lose e-, and oxidizing agents tend to gain e-
Keywords
oxidizing agent, reducing agent
04-02
Title
Relative activity of iron and copper
Caption
The iron nail reduces the Cu2+ions and becomes coated with metallic Cu. At the same time, the intensity of the blue color diminishes due to loss of Cu2+ions from solution.
Notes
Iron nail reduces the Cu2+ions and becomes coated with metallic Cu.
Keywords
activity, oxidation, reduction
04-02-02UN
Title
Activity Series of the Elements
Caption
The activity series lists metals according to their reducing ability with weakest at the bottom and strongest at the top. Therefore, a metal element may reduce any cationic species listed below it in the activity series.
Notes
Activity Series of the Elements
Keywords
activity series
04-02-03UN
Title
Activity of copper and silver
Caption
(a) The copper wire reduces aqueous Ag+ion and (b) becomes coated with metallic silver. Note the blue color due to Cu2+ions in the solution.
Notes
Relative activity of copper and silver
Keywords
activity series, copper, silver
04-02-04UN
Title
Reaction of sodium metal with water
Caption
In this example, the oxidation number of oxygen remains unchanged throughout the reaction. Sodium metal becomes oxidized and the hydrogens of the water molecules become reduced.
Notes
It may help to think of water as dissociating within itself to produce small amounts of H+and -OH ions. The H+ions become reduced and the -OH ions remain unchanged.
Keywords
oxidation, reduction, water, sodium
04-02-06UN
Title
General activity of the metals
Caption
Within the metals portion of the periodic table, the more active (stronger reducer) metals are found toward the left side of the metals category and the less active (weaker reducer) metals are toward the right side of the metals category.
Notes
Areas indicated in the periodic table where there are: more active metals and less active metals
Keywords
activity series, metals
04-03
Title
The oxidation-number method
Caption
Figure 4.3 The procedure for balancing redox equations by the oxidation-number method.
Notes
The procedure for balancing redox equations by the oxidation-number
Keywords
oxidation-number method, redox
04-04
Title
The half-reaction method
Caption
Figure 4.4 The procedure for balancing redox equations by the half-reaction method.
Notes
The procedure for balancing redox equations by the half-reaction method
Keywords
redox, half-reaction
04-05
Title
Redox titration calculations
Caption
Figure 4.5 A flow diagram for a redox titration, summarizing the calculations needed to determine the concentration of a KMnO4 solution by titration of a known mass of H2C2O4.
Notes
Comparison can be made to the method used with limiting reagents and calculating mass-mole conversions
Keywords
redox, titration
04-07-001UN
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Reactions in Aqueous Solution Key Concept Summary.
Notes
Key Concept Summary for Chapter 4
Keywords
summary
04-07-01UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 4.24
Caption
Assume that an aqueous solution of a cation, represented as a red sphere, is allowed to mix with a solution of an anion, represented by a yellow sphere.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.24
Keywords
key concept, precipitation, solubility
04-07-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 4.25
Caption
What combination of cations and anions will yield the result indicated by the diagram? Explain.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.25
Keywords
key concept, solubility, precipitation
04-07-03UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 4.26
Caption
Assume that an aqueous solution of OH-, represented as a blue sphere, is allowed to mix with a solution of an acid HnA, represented by a red sphere.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.26
Keywords
key concept, acid, base
04-07-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 4.27
Caption
Assume that the blue spheres in the buret represent I-ions, the red spheres in the flask represent OCl-ions, the concentration of the I-ions in the buret is 0.120 M, and volumes in the buret and the flask are identical.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.27
Keywords
redox, titration, key concept
04-07-05UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 4.29
Caption
Based on the positions in the periodic table, which of the following reactions would you expect to occur?
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.29
Keywords
key concept, activity series
04-07-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 4.28
Caption
Assume that the conductivity of a solution depends on the total concentration of dissolved ions and that you measure the conductivity of three different solutions while carrying out titration procedures.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 4.28
Keywords
key concept, conductivity
04-TB01
Title
Table 4.1 Electrolyte Classification of Some Common Substance
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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