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Key Concepts PowerPoint

## Chapter 3Formulas, Equations, and Moles

03-00-02UN
 Title Balancing chemical equations Caption After writing the correct chemical formula for each reactant and product, balancing of the equation is then accomplished by placing coefficients in front of the appropriate chemical species. The coefficient 'multiplies' the number of each atom for a particular formula unit in order to balance the equation. Notes When a coefficient is not specifed for a particular species in an equation, the coefficient is assumed to be 1. Keywords reaction, equation, balancing, coefficients
03-00-03UN1
 Title Balancing equations Caption When balancing chemical equations, coefficients are added in front of a particular species indicating multiple numbers of a formula unit. Do not change subscripts found within a formula unit since this actually changes the identity of the intended reactant or product. Notes Proper placement of coefficients Keywords coefficients, equation, balancing
03-00-03UN2
 Title Comparison of water and hydrogen peroxide Caption Although these two molecules contain only hydrogen and oxygen, they are not the same compound. Notes Structures of water and hydrogen peroxide Keywords water, hydrogen peroxide
03-00-08UN
 Title Worked Key Concept Example 3.3 Caption Write a balanced equation for the reaction between A (red spheres) and B (blue spheres) represented by the diagrams. Notes Worked Key Concept Example 3.3 Keywords key concept, reaction, balancing
03-00-09UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.3 Caption Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between A (red spheres) and B (green spheres) as represented in the diagrams. Notes Key Concept Problem 3.3 Keywords key concept, reaction, balancing
03-00-10UN
 Title Formation of water Caption The space-filling models of hydrogen and oxygen are shown to react and produce two molecules of water. The reaction equation is balanced. Notes Formation of water Keywords water, equation
03-00-11UN
 Title Formation of ethyl chloride Caption The molecules of ethylene and hydrogen chloride react and combine to form a new compound, ethyl chloride, which is used as a topical anesthetic. Notes Formation of ethyl chloride, C2H5Cl Keywords ethyl chloride, reaction
03-01
 Title Relationship between mass and moles Caption Figure 3.1 (a) Because one gumdrop weighs more than one jellybean, you can’t get equal numbers merely by taking equal weights. The same is true for different atoms or molecules. (b) Equal numbers of HCl and ethylene molecules always have a mass ratio equal to the ratio of their molecular masses, 36.5 to 28.0. Notes Relationship between mass and moles Keywords mass, mole
03-01-03UN
 Title Formation of ammonia Caption Instead of representing the number of individual atoms or molecules of a reactant or product, the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation also represent the number of moles of a reactant or product. Notes Balanced equation for the industrial synthesis of ammonia—arrows pointing to moles of hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia Keywords mole, ammonia, equation
03-01-04UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.6 Caption Using the structural model shown, what is the chemical formula and molecular mass of methionine (red = O, gray = C, blue = N, yellow = S, ivory = H)? Notes Key Concept Problem 3.6 Keywords key concept, formula, mass
03-02
 Title Conversion between moles and mass Caption Figure 3.2 A summary of conversions between moles and grams for a chemical reaction. The numbers of moles tell how many molecules of each reactant are needed, as given by the balanced equation; the numbers of grams tell how much mass of each reactant is needed. Notes Conversion between moles and mass Keywords mole, mass, conversion
03-02-02UN
 Title Stiochiometry calculation Caption Solving stoichiometry problems first involves having a balanced chemical equation. Take the known mass of a chemical species and convert it to moles using molecular mass as a conversion factor. Use the ratio of the appropriate equation coefficients to convert moles of one species to moles of another species. Finally, use the molar mass of the latter species to convert moles into grams. Notes Worked Example 3.7 Keywords stoichiometry, calculation, conversion
03-02-03UN
 Title Structure of aspirin Caption Aspirin has the molecular formula C9H8O4. Notes Structure can be used in conjunction with Problems 3.7 and 3.8 Keywords aspirin
03-02-04UN
 Title Structure of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Caption Ball-and-stick model of MTBE, C5H12O. Notes Can be used in conjunction with Worked Example 3.8 Keywords MTBE, ether
03-02-05UN
 Title Structure of diethyl ether Caption Ball-and-stick model of diethyl ether. Notes Can be used in conjunction with Worked Example 3.9 Keywords diethyl ether, ether
03-02-07UN
 Title Formation of ethylene glycol Caption Although the reaction equation shows that only one mole of ethylene oxide reacts with one mole of water to produce ethylene glycol, it is often the case in the laboratory that reactants are not mixed in the same ratios as the equation dictates. Notes This example is meant to introduce the concept of 'limiting reactant' or 'limiting reagent' Keywords limiting reactant, ethylene glycol
03-02-08UN
 Title Effect of limiting reactant Caption If water is in excess with respect to the balanced chemical equation, then the moles of ethylene glycol formed is dependent on the moles of ethylene oxide used. Therefore, some water will be left unreacted when the reaction is complete. Notes Effect of limiting reactant Keywords limiting reactant, ethylene glycol
03-02-09UN
 Title Structure of cisplatin Caption Ball-and-stick model of cisplatin. Notes Can be used in conjunction with Worked Example 3.10 Keywords cisplatin
03-02-10UN
 Title Balanced equation and limiting reactant Caption Key Concept Problem 3.13 Write a balanced equation for the reaction and identify the limiting reactant. Notes Key Concept Problem 3.13 Keywords key concept, balanced equation, limiting reactant
03-05
 Title Molarity as a conversion factor Caption Figure 3.5 A flow diagram summarizing the use of molarity as a conversion factor between moles and volume in stoichiometry calculations. Notes Molarity as conversion factor Keywords molarity, conversion, mole, volume
03-06
 Title Acid-base titration Caption Figure 3.6 A flow diagram for an acid-base titration, summarizing the calculations needed to determine the concentration of an HCl solution by titration with an NaOH standard solution. Notes A flow diagram for an acid-base titration Keywords titration, stoichiometry
03-08
 Title Chemical formula from percent composition Caption Figure 3.8 A flow diagram for calculating the formula of a compound from its percent composition. Notes When only percent compositions of each element are given, assume you have 100.0 g of the compound and proceed with the calculations. Keywords percent composition, formula, empirical
03-08-01UN
 Title Structure of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) Caption Ball-and-stick model of ascorbic acid. Notes Can be used in conjunction with Worked Example 3.15 Keywords ascorbic acid, vitamin C
03-08-03UN
 Title Structure of glucose (blood sugar) Caption Ball-and-stick model of glucose, C6H12O6. Notes Can be used in conjunction with Worked Example 3.16 Keywords glucose, blood sugar
03-09
 Title Empirical formula from combustion analysis Caption Figure 3.9 A flow diagram for determining an empirical formula from combustion analysis of a compound containing C and H. Notes Although the products carbon dioxide and water determine the number of moles of carbon and hydrogen in the sample, the number of moles of oxygen may need to be determined separately in order to account for the entire mass of the combusted sample. Keywords combustion, empirical formula
03-09-01UN
 Title Structure of naphthalene Caption Ball-and-stick model of naphthalene, C10H8. Notes Can be described as the primary ingredient to commercial moth balls (not to be confused with commercial moth crystals which are made from para-dichlorobenzene. Keywords naphthalene
03-09-02UN
 Title Structure of caproic acid Caption Ball-and-stick model of caproic acid. Notes Can be used in conjunction with Worked Example 3.18 Keywords caproic acid
03-10
 Title Mass spectrometry Caption Figure 3.10 (a) Schematic of a mass spectrometer. Sample molecules are ionized by collision with a high-energy electron beam, and the resulting ions are then passed between the poles of a magnet, where they are deflected according to their mass-to-charge ratio. The deflected ions pass through a slit into a detector assembly. (b) A mass spectrum of naphthalene, molec. mass = 128, showing peaks of different masses on the horizontal axis. Notes Schematic of a mass spectrometer Keywords mass spectrometer, mass spectrometry molecular mass
03-10-02.1
 Title Key Concept Summary Caption Formulas, equations, and moles key concept summary. Notes Key Concept Summary for Chapter 3 Keywords key concepts, summary
03-10-03UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.30 Caption Diagram for Problem 3.30. Notes Key Concept Problem 3.30 Keywords key concept, dilution
03-10-04UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.30 Caption Reaction of A (green spheres) with B (blue spheres) is shown schematically in the following diagram: Notes Key Concept Problem 3.30 Keywords key concept, stoichiometry
03-10-05UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.32 Caption Structure of cytosine, a constituent of DNA. Notes Can be used in conjunction with Problem 3.32 Keywords cytosine
03-10-06UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.33 Caption Reaction between NO and O2 to produce NO2. Notes Key Concept Problem 3.33 Keywords key concept, reactant, product
03-10-07
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.34 Caption Structure of fluoxetine (Prozac) (red = O, blue = N, yellow-green = F, ivory = H). Notes Key Concept Problem 3.34 Keywords fluoxetine, prozac
03-10-08UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.35 Caption Acid-base titration. Notes Key Concept Problem 3.35 Keywords key concept, titration
03-10-09
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.36 Caption Red and blue spheres to represent reaction of A2 and B2. Notes Key Concept Problem 3.36 Keywords key concept, limiting reactant
03-10-10UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 3.37 Caption A hydrocarbon of unknown formula CxHy was submitted to combustion analysis. Notes Key Concept Problem 3.36 Keywords key concept, empirical formula, combustion analysis

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