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Access point See Hotspot.

Accessibility compliance An initiative to provide features in order to accommodate people with visual or physical disabilities so that they can access the Internet with modifications to the browser or Web sites.

Acronym A series of letters that stand for the first letter of words in a phrase.

Active X A technology that works within Web pages to display animation, multimedia, and interactive objects.

Add-ons A browser feature that enables you to personalize your browsing experience in the areas of security, timesaving features, offline browsing, and entertainment.

Address bar The toolbar in Internet Explorer into which individuals type the address of a specific Web site that they want to display.

Address book A feature that stores the names and e-mail addresses of your friends, colleagues, or other contacts you would like to communicate with using e-mail.

Administrative address A mailing list address that is reserved for use for sending commands such as Subscribe and Unsubscribe to the mailing list.

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) The U.S. Department of Defense agency developed to promote scientific research and technological development in order to help the United States gain a leading edge in the race in science and technology among the world’s developed nations.

Advanced search A search engine feature providing options for refining a keyword query by specifying additional criteria for returned search results.

Adware A software program that collects information about your preferences by tracking your browsing habits and in response, displays advertisements on your screen as pop-ups or as icons on your desktop.

Aggregator See Blog feed.

Anonymous FTP A Web site that permits you to log in and access files on a server without identifying yourself to the server with a user ID and password. Typically, an anonymous FTP site accepts the word guest or anonymous as the user ID and a password is unnecessary.

Anti-adware program A program that scans the hard drive or any other location you specify on your computer for known adware that may be on your computer. Once located, the program disables the adware.

Anti-spyware program A program that scans the hard drive or any other location you specify on your computer for known spyware that may be on your computer. Once located, the program disables the spyware.

Anti-virus program A program that scans the hard drive or any other location you specify on your computer for known viruses that may be on your computer. Once located, the program disables the virus.

Archive An electronic copy of a file that can be stored in a separate location and retrieved at a future date.

ARPA See Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ARPANET A large network developed by ARPA in the 1960s that allowed for sensitive governmental communications and the exchange of academic and scientific research without interruption in the event of a catastrophe.

Article The original message of a thread found in a newsgroup.

As Attachment An option to forward a message as a separate file that must be viewed as an attachment by the recipient.

As Inline Text An option to forward a message embedded into the message body.

Asynchronous communication Electronic communication in which the participants do not need to be online at the same time, and all participants can view the communication when they want to do so.

”At” sign (@)A character that is always part of an e-mail address and separates the user ID from the host name.

Atom A pair of related protocols that enable access to feeds written in the XML.

Attachment Additional files sent along with an e-mail message to support the meaning or subject matter of the e-mail.

Avatar A graphic used to represent a message board, instant message, or chat participant.

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Back button A browser feature that moves you to the last Web page that you visited.

Bandwidth The transmission speed or transfer capacity of data on a network, measured in bits per second.

Bcc See Blind carbon copy.

Berners-Lee, Tim The scientist who proposed combining the use of the Internet with hypertext to create a tool for collaboration and data sharing that subsequently became the World Wide Web.

Big Eight The seven original top-level USENET hierarchies plus the category added in 1995, humanities.*

Big Seven The seven original top-level USENET hierarchies: comp.*, misc.*, news.*, rec.*, sci.*, soc.*, and talk.*.

Bit The smallest unit of data that can be used in computing or sent along a network.

Bits per second (bps) The unit of measure for bandwidth— the transmission speed or transfer capacity of data on a network.

Blind carbon copy (Bcc) An e-mail component that lists people who will receive an e-mail message but whose name is visible only to the sender and the person receiving the blind carbon copy.

Blind courtesy copy (Bcc) See Blind carbon copy.

Blog See Web log.

Blog feed (aggregator) An RSS feed that notifies you of an update to a blog.

Blogger The author of a blog Web site.

Bloglines A Web-based service that enables you to create blogs as well as subscribe to RSS feeds.

Blogosphere The collection of blogs found on the World Wide Web including the entire blogging community of authors and readers.

Blogroll A series of links found in a blog that connects to other blogs that are related in some way to the original blog.

Boolean operators Mathematical or logical terms used to make a query more specific by showing the relationship of the words used in the query.

Bot See Spider.

Bps See Bits per second.

Breadcrumb trail A navigation tool that lists each category and subcategory in the order clicked, typically displayed in a horizontal row near the top of the Web page.

Broadband Refers to high-speed transmission media that can carry voice, data, and video at the same time.

Browse The term used to describe moving from one Web page to another or from one Web site to another.

Browser See Web browser.

Bulk folder An e-mail folder that is used to collect incoming e-mail that appears to be spam.

Bulletin board See Message board.

Byte Any given character, letter, or number made up of 8 bits.

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Cable connection An Internet connection made over the same cables as those used for cable television transmission.

Cache A storage mechanism in the memory area of your computer’s hard drive that enables the rapid retrieval of frequently used Web pages or files.

Calendaring An e-mail client’s feature that tracks events and alerts you when an event’s time and date have arrived. Often, calendaring features enable you to create a group calendar that all group members can access.

CamelCase A pattern used in many programming languages where words are written as compound words and each word is capitalized so that the capital letters resemble a camel’s back.

CAPTCHA See Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart.

Carbon copy (Cc) An e-mail component that lists people who will receive a copy of the e-mail message for informational purposes.

Cc See Carbon copy.

CERN The world-renowned particle physics laboratory on the border between Switzerland and France. The name is an acronym for the French Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, which translates to European Organization for Nuclear Research.

Channel An IRC chat room, either public or private, that focuses on a specific topic.

Channel operator The first person to join a channel who, therefore, gets to control the channel.

Chat Interactive, text-based, synchronous discussions among two or more participants performed by using an Internet-connected computer and specialized software.

Chat room A specific Web site or part of a software program where chat conversations occur.

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) The federal law requiring parental consent for the collection or use of any personal information gathered at Web sites from children under the age of 13.

Citizen journalism Citizens reporting breaking news events as they occur at their location in the form of a blog or vlog.

Client A network-connected computer that is used to make requests to view files and other resources provided by another computer; the computer you are working on.

Client-based e-mail system An e-mail system accessed by using a software program installed on your computer—the client—and an e-mail account provided by your ISP that works with the ISP’s servers to send and store your e-mail messages.

Client-server architecture The interaction between a client computer and a server computer.

Closed list A mailing list where the moderator reviews all requests to join the mailing list and approves or denies list membership requests.

Clustering A technology that groups the top-ranked search results from multiple sources into a hierarchy of folders representing the main ideas of the keyword query.

Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) A program that makes certain text visible onscreen appear to be composed of wavy and distorted letters in order to prevent computer programs performing events online instead of humans performing events online. The program was developed and is trademarked by Carnegie Mellon University.

Console A pop-up window that enables you to control the playing of multimedia by clicking buttons or dragging sliders.

Contact list In instant messaging programs, a list of people you know and their user IDs.

Context-sensitive menu A Windows feature that displays a small pop-up window containing a menu of commands relating to the object that has been right-clicked.

Cookies Small text files sent from a Web server and stored on the client computer that transmits data back to the Web server.

COPPA See Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act.

Copyright The legal protection given to the authors of intellectual works including but not limited to art, music, or writings.

Courtesy copy (Cc) See Carbon copy.

Crawler See Spider.

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Dashboard A user interface, or a Web page, that provides one location to perform several tasks such as viewing or editing your profile, changing your password, editing your personal information, and creating or managing your blog.

Date stamp A statement of year or a range of years to indicate how long the Web site has existed or the most recent update for the Web site.

Dedicated service Refers to communication services that are provided to a single specific user, typically a business or organization.

Deep Web See Invisible Web.

Default home page The first page that displays when a Web browser is started. Because it is a customizable feature, it is typically set to a frequently used Web page.

Deja News An early newsgroup system that provided access to several thousand newsgroups until the late 1990s, when it was taken over by Google Groups.

Desktop shortcut An icon displaying on the desktop that leads directly to a program, file, or Web page.

DHTML See Dynamic HTML.

Dialer program A program used to make phone calls from your computer to international or toll numbers.

Dial-up connection An Internet connection made over standard telephone wires by using a modem.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) A digital communications technology that uses standard telephone lines to transmit data but at a higher rate of speed than a standard dial-up connection.

Direct satellite system (DSS) An Internet connection made over a satellite dish and television cables.

Directory 1. An alphabetical list of subject categories arranged in hierarchy leading from a set of broad subject areas to more detailed subcategories for individual Web sites or Web resources. 2. An organizational unit used to group data and files on a server or computer.

Distance learning (Online learning) A term used in the field of education to describe learning opportunities that take place using technology to replace physical classrooms.

DNS See Domain Name System.

Domain name The part of the text-based URL that identifies the company or organization that owns the Web site.

Domain Name System (DNS) A hierarchical system under which host computers on the Internet have both a text-based URL and a numeric IP address.

Dotted quad See Internet Protocol address.

Download A term meaning to transfer a copy of a file or program from a site over the Internet to your computer.

Draft folder An e-mail folder that stores e-mail messages that you have composed but not yet sent.

Drag-and-drop A technique where you point to an object onscreen, then click your mouse and continue to hold down the mouse button while you move the object to another part of the screen.

Dreamweaver A popular software program developed by Macromedia that is used to create Web pages and now is owned by Adobe.

Drilling down Clicking into more specific areas of directory subject categories until you locate the information you need.

DSL See Digital Subscriber Line. DSS See Direct satellite system.

Dynamic HTML (DHTML) A technology using HTML and scripts to generate Web pages dynamically in response to the user’s input.

Dynamically generated A term representing a method of instantly creating Web pages in response to specified criteria.

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Electronic mail A service that provides for the exchange of messages and documents over the Internet or over an organizations’ network.

E-mail See Electronic mail.

E-mail address A code used to specify where and to whom to send and receive e-mail.

E-mail client A software program that is used to compose, send, and receive e-mail messages.

Emoticon A series of keyboard characters, text, or inline images that create a face displaying an emotion and are commonly used in chat or instant messaging.

Encryption The process of scrambling or coding information as it is sent by using a set of keys.

Executable file A program that the computer runs directly from the file.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) A markup language developed to allow the description of data for the purpose of sharing the data over many devices.

Extension A three-letter set of characters added to the end of the file name that indicates the file type.

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FAQs See Frequently Asked Questions.

Favorites Center A feature of Internet Explorer that contains a list of Web sites you have added there because you like the Web sites and may want to return to the sites easily again.

Feeds button A feature that detects if a Web page uses Really Simple Syndication, or RSS.

File A complete, named collection of information that serves as a basic unit of storage and by which a computer can distinguish one set of information from another.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A protocol that enables individuals to copy files from one computer to another on a network.

Filters An e-mail feature used to automatically sort your e-mail messages into folders as the messages arrive instead of placing them directly into in the Inbox by default.

Firewall A software program that is used to protect your computer from outside threats by blocking direct communication with the Internet.

First-person shooting game A graphically oriented game where the view on the screen is shown from the viewpoint of the main character of the game.

Flame An abusive or insulting message sent to someone on a mailing list, listserv, or in a chat room.

Folder An e-mail feature used to collect, organize, and store your e-mail.

Font A certain named style of text that represents qualities of size, spacing, and shape of letters.

Form data Anything that you have typed into the Address bar or on Web pages during a browsing.

Formatting toolbar A set of onscreen tools that enables you to customize the appearance of text.

Forum See Message board.

Forward An e-mail feature that sends a message you have received, modified, or left in its original form, to another recipient who is not the original sender.

Forward button A browser feature that moves you to the Web page you were viewing before you clicked the Back button.

Freeware Software programs that are made available to the user free of charge.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) A list of commonly asked questions and the answers to those questions.

From line An e-mail component that indicates the name or user ID of the sender of the e-mail.

FrontPage A popular software program developed by Microsoft that is used to create Web pages.

FTP See File Transfer Protocol.

FTP client Software that lets you make a connection to an FTP site and then copy files to and from that site.

Full-text indexing A search engine’s index created by spiders that search the entire file or document noting where the words are located within the file or document and how often they appear within the content of the Web page.

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Go button A green arrow at the right end of the Address bar that appears as you type and will take you to the URL that is typed in the Address bar.

Google Earth A service that uses satellite images, maps, and the Google search engine to enable zooming in from the sky level down to the street level as if you were flying overhead in an airplane.

Google Maps A service of Google that provides search capability for locating maps and finding directions through your computer or mobile phone.

Groom To establish a level of trust and develop an increasingly exploitative relationship between a victim and a predator.

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Hackers People with sophisticated computer skills who access networks and servers to steal data, examine code, or infect computer systems with malicious programs.

Help A feature that provides access to an index of answers to questions about using Internet Explorer, a tour of Internet Explorer, online support, and feedback options.

Hierarchy A topic category that provides the structure for a newsgroup name.

History A browser feature where a list is automatically generated for Web sites that have been visited during a browsing session.

Hit Each individual link in the search results list.

Hoax An e-mail making false statements or outrageous offers.

Home button A button that always returns you to the default home page that is set for the computer you are working on.

Home page The starting point or the first Web page displayed at a Web site.

Host computer A computer within an organization that has access to all other computers on the organization’s network and provides services for those computers such as the storage of Web pages.

Host name The name of the server and the domain name of the organization where e-mail is received and stored.

Hosting provider An organization that provides server space for Web sites or blogs either free of charge or for a monthly fee.

Hotspot A Wi-Fi connection point consisting of a small box that is hardwired to the Internet and is commonly found in airports, coffee shops, hotels, and libraries.

HTML See Hypertext Markup Language.

HTTP See Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

Hybrid learning Courses combining classroom time with some portion of the course work completed in the online format.

Hyperlink See Hypertext link.

Hypertext Text linked together in a way that lets people browse through related topics in a nonlinear web of associations.

Hypertext link A connection often represented by blue underlined text or blue bordered images in a Web page. When clicked, the visitor is transferred to another part of the Web page, another part of the Web site, or to a new Web site.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) A language that uses tags to mark a Web page’s text and graphics. The tags indicate how a Web browser should display these elements.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The protocol used to carry the request from the Web browser on the client computer to the server computer, and then to transport copies of files from the server computer back to the client computer for display by the browser.

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ICANN See Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

IE See Internet Explorer.

IM See Instant messaging.

IM client A program installed on your computer that enables you to send and receive messages instantly.

IMAP See Internet Message Access Protocol.

Inbox The default folder in an e-mail system where incoming messages are placed.

Index An enormous database, used in a search engine, that stores references to words found in documents and Web files located by the spider.

Instant messaging (IM) Interactive, text-based, synchronous discussions similar to chat, however, usually only two people are participating within one window.

Instant Search A search tool that allows you to locate Web sites, images, and maps on the Internet from the toolbar of the Internet Explorer window.

Internal search engine A search engine that indexes only a particular Web site in order to create a search results list that contains only results from that Web site.

Internet A worldwide system of networked computers that use a common set of rules enabling collaboration, communication, and commerce.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) The organization that oversees the registration of new domain names and administers IP addresses on the Internet.

Internet Explorer A browser developed by Microsoft that is designed to work with the Windows operating system.

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) The protocol that enables the e-mail client to read and manage e-mail messages using the user’s computer but the messages remain stored on the server.

Internet Protocol address A number that uniquely identifies each computer connected to the Internet to other computers connected to the Internet for the purpose of communication and the transfer of data packets.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) The first system developed to enable multiple individuals to participate in text-based, real-time conversations over the Internet.

Internet Service Provider (ISP) A company or organization that provides access to the Internet.

Internet telephony (Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP) The transmission of voice communication over the Internet by using packet switching and TCP/IP.

Internet2 A consortium of education and research leaders brought together by extremely fast network solutions for the purpose of collaboration and learning.

Invisible Web (Deep Web) Documents and files stored on Web servers or in electronic databases that are not accessible using directories and search engines typically used when searching the World Wide Web.

IP address See Internet Protocol address.

IPng See IPv6.

IPv4 standard The current standard for the Internet Protocol, under which the mathematical possibilities for IP addresses have almost been reached due to the explosive growth of the Internet.

IPv6 A new standard for the Internet Protocol, also referred to as IPng (an acronym for Internet Protocol next generation), that allows for the future growth of the Internet.

IRC See Internet Relay Chat.

ISP See Internet Service Provider.

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Keyword query A word or phrase that represents the subject you want to find out about and is used to begin a search.

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LAN See Local area network.

Link See Hypertext link.

Link Select pointer The mouse pointer view that displays as a pointing hand as you point to a link.

List address A mailing list address used for posting messages and replying to messages on a mailing list.

List server The server where the mailing list manager software is installed.

Listserv (Mailing list) A subscription-based list of several names and e-mail addresses combined under one e-mail address generally managed by software and used for the discussion of specific topic areas.

LISTSERV A program that is commonly used to manage mailing lists.

Local area network (LAN) A group of computers and devices forming a network and located in a limited area connected so that any computer or device can communicate with any other computer or device on that network.

Lurk When you receive and read posts, but you do not reply to any of them.

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Mail header An e-mail component located at the top of the e-mail message and contains information about the message, such as the sender’s e-mail address, the recipient’s e-mail address, and the subject.

Mail server A large computer that receives, stores, and sends e-mail messages.

Mailing list See Listserv.

Mailing list manager A software program installed on a server that handles accepting messages and posting them on the list.

Majordomo A program that is commonly used to manage mailing lists.

Malware A software program that invades computers and networks for the purpose of disruption or destruction of the network or data.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) A prestigious university that primarily focuses its instruction in science and technology.

Massively Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG) A Web-based game involving multiple players spread across many countries.

Maximize button A Windows feature that, when clicked, enlarges the window to fill the computer screen completely.

Menu bar A horizontal bar near the top of the browser window that contains expandable menu-style headings for performing important commands and tasks.

Message board (Web-based forum, forum, or bulletin board) A Web-based discussion area similar to a newsgroup where topics are discussed in threads. See also Web-based forum and Bulletin board.

Message body An e-mail component containing the content of the e-mail message.

Meta-search engine A search tool that uses several search engines to locate results for a single query and returns the results as a single list.

Metatags Tags found in HTML coding that provide information such as the author, a listing of keywords, and a description of the content of the Web page.

Microsoft Outlook An e-mail client that is part of the Microsoft Office Suite and provides features such as calendaring, contact management, and other collaboration tools in addition to e-mail.

MILNET The portion of the early ARPANET split off for exclusive use by the military for communication and support.

MIME See Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

Minimize, Restore Down, and Close buttons Enable customization of the screen for size and availability. MIT See Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT OCW See MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT See Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

MIT OCW See MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) A system of free, high-quality instructional materials available online for self-taught instruction offered through MIT.

MMOG See Massively Multiplayer Online Game.

Modem See Modulator/demodulator.

Moderated list A mailing list where all messages are screened by a human—the moderator—before being allowed to be sent to a mailing list.

Moderated newsgroup A newsgroup in which your post will be reviewed, or filtered for content and relevance, prior to being sent to the news server.

Moderator 1. The human who evaluates membership requests and screens posts to determine whether the posts should be allowed to be sent to the mailing list. 2. The human who screens newsgroup posts to determine whether the posts should be allowed to be sent to the news server.

Modulator/demodulator (Modem) Computer hardware that converts data packets in digital format to analog format for the purpose of transmission on an analog line, and then converts the data packets back to digital format for display on a computer screen.

MOO See MUD Object Oriented.

MUD See Multi-User Dungeon.

MUD Object Oriented (MOO) A text-based game that enables multiple players to write programs, which create new rooms or objects within a scenario.

Multimedia Web site A multimedia Web site that uses some combination of pictures, animations, audio, video, and virtual reality within a Web site.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) A protocol that takes care of decoding non-text documents such as images, audio, and video files that may be attached to e-mail messages.

Multi-User Dungeon (MUD) A text-based game with multiple players that combines role-playing with chat rooms.

Multi-User Shared Hack (MUSH) A text-based game with multiple players that uses role-playing. Any player can create a character, extend the existing world, and create behaviors of the objects.

MUSH See Multi-User Shared Hack.

My Yahoo! A Web-based service from Yahoo! that provides access to RSS content among other features.

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Name resolution The translation performed by the Domain Name System that translates a text-based URL into a numeric IP address for the purpose of locating the computer requested.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) A government organization that is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. It conducts research and provides recommendations on climates, oceans, fisheries, air quality, and weather.

National Weather Service (NWS) The organization that provides the information that television and private meteorological companies use to prepare the forecasts. It is considered the primary source for weather information in the United States.

Natural language query A query that uses a complete sentence or question to begin a search.

Netiquette See Network etiquette.

Network etiquette A set of principles developed to express courtesy and to help people act appropriately while sending e-mail and using the Internet.

Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) The protocol used to distribute the articles, posts, and threads among newsgroups.

Newbie Someone who is new to chat and does not know how chat works.

News server A server that hosts several newsgroups to exchange articles, posts, and threads from their hosted newsgroups with other news servers and their hosted newsgroups.

Newsfeed The exchange of articles and posts between news servers.

Newsgroup A networked system of threaded discussion boards where individuals can read, post, or reply on a specific topic of interest. Groups of participants are organized within topic areas.

Newsletter An electronic publication regularly sent out to subscribers to provide information on a specific topic.

Newsreader A software program that allows the subscription to and participation within a newsgroup.

NNTPSee Network News Transfer Protocol.

NOAA See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Node A specific point of location of a computer or server on a network.

Notepad A plain text editor that is part of the Windows operating system.

NSFNET A network that replaced ARAPNET in the late 1980s for educational and scientific research.

NWS See National Weather Service.

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Offline A term that means you can use your Web browser to see a Web page without being connected to the Internet.

Online learning See Distance learning.

Open list A mailing list where list membership requests are not reviewed by a moderator and that accepts everyone who tries to join the list using the correct commands.

Open source Software program instructions that are available for free distribution. Users provide feedback and debug the software in cooperation with the original developers, or even modify and redistribute the programs.

Opt-in To request to receive e-mail, mailing list messages, or newsletters.

Opt-out A term meaning that you do not want to participate by being included in a company’s or organization’s database of records.

Outlook Express A client-based e-mail system that comes as the default e-mail system with the Windows operating system.

Overlap The number of times different search engines turn up the same Web site on a search results list in response to the same queries.

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Packet switching The technology of breaking information into small data packets that can be easily passed along a network over various routes and end up at the same destination.

Page See Web page.

Page button A button that contains a submenu of commands to perform many common tasks related to the current Web page such as opening a new browser window, saving the Web page, or sending either a link to the page or the entire page itself to someone using e-mail.

Password A string of characters—letters, numbers, and punctuation—that is used in combination with a user ID to verify authorization to use a network, server, or computer.

Path The sequential description of the storage location of the HTML documents and files making up the Web page and stored in the hierarchy of directories and folders on the Web server.

PDF or .pdf (Portable document format) file A file translated as output from another program into the portable document format using the Adobe Acrobat program. Typically, you can read a .pdf file but you cannot modify it unless you have been given rights to do so by the document’s creator. To read a .pdffile, you must have Adobe Reader software installed on your computer.

Permalink The unique URL for a blog post so that users can locate the post by typing the URL into the Address bar of the browser.

Pharming The practice where fraudulent Web sites are created to look like the official Web site so that unknowing clients and customers conduct business at the Web site and reveal their personal information.

Phishing The practice of sending e-mail that attempts to illegally solicit personal information by requesting information for account verification, passwords, account numbers, or other personal data.

Photo sharing An e-mail client’s feature that enables you to upload digital photos so that the photos can be viewed by others as part of a Web page.

PHP file A HTML file with scripting embedded within the HTML coding so that dynamically generated results from databases are displayed onscreen.

Pinned A pop-up or panel that is made to remain stationary within the browser window.

Plug-ins Small software programs developed to work within a Web browser to execute proprietary files types that the browser can’t interpret.

Podcast The download of MP3 audio files from the World Wide Web to MP3 compatible computers or portable audio players using RSS technology.

POP3 See Post Office Protocol 3.

Pop-up A new instance of a browser window that displays on top of the current browser window to display ads or other information.

Portal A Web page that contains interesting content, frequently used links, and services such as current and breaking news, email access, and search capabilities.

Post 1. An individual entry in a blog. 2. Any of the subsequent replies to an article found in a newsgroup. 3. An individual message on a mailing list or listserv.

Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) A protocol that enables the e-mail client to connect to the mail server and download all of the messages being stored for that e-mail address to the user’s computer.

Posting The act of sending an e-mail message to a mailing list or listserv, newsgroup, or blog.

Primary sources Those sources that provide direct evidence, testimony, or facts related to the research subject.

Print button A button that enables you to quickly print the current Web page without opening the Print dialog box.

Printer-friendly version A version of an e-mail message that has no ads and has been formatted and centered to fit correctly on a standard 81/2-by- 11 sheet of paper.

Privacy Your ability to determine which personal information, such as your email messages and stored files, is shared and for what purpose.

Privacy policies Policies that inform you of how any information about you gathered at a Web site may be used or shared with other parties.

Private key An encryption tool that is used to decode the data after it is transmitted over the Internet.

Protocol A common set of rules for how computers communicate and exchange information.

Proximity How near each word in the query appears on the Web page in relation to the other words of the query.

Public key An encryption tool that is used to code the data before sending it over the Internet.

Publish To make available after writing.

Pull technology A technology that works on the World Wide Web where users actively seek out new information from Web sites.

Push technology A technology that works on the World Wide Web where users are provided with new and updated information either automatically or at specified intervals.

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Quick Tabs An Internet Explorer feature that only displays when multiple tabs are open and permits navigation among open tabs.

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Rankings The algorithms used to retrieve and list words from the search engine’s index.

Really Simple Syndication (RSS) A system developed to automatically alert subscribers of updates made to sites such as blogs, news, weather, or sports sites.

Real-time communication See Synchronous communication.

Real-time strategy game A graphically-oriented game in which each player can play continuously and not take turns.

Relevance How closely the search results relate to your keyword query.

Reply Your electronic response to an e-mail message that enables you to send the original e-mail and additional information or comments back to the sender.

Reply To Everyone An e-mail feature that sends your reply message to the sender of the message and all of the recipients of the original message.

Reply To Sender An e-mail feature that sends your reply only to the sender of the original message.

Restore Down button A Windows feature that, when clicked, makes the window smaller and enables you to move the Internet Explorer window.

Reverse lookup A service that enables you to type in a phone number or an e-mail address, and then the name of the person associated with that information is returned.

RSS See Really Simple Syndication.

RSS feed An individual Web document in the XML format that contains content such as news, weather, or blog posts.

RSS reader A software program or Web-based service that provides access to RSS feeds.

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Sandbox A practice area where individuals new to wikis can practice making edits without damaging the real content of the wiki.

ScreenTip A Windows feature that temporarily displays a small box providing information about, or the name of, a screen element as you hold the mouse pointer over buttons or images in Internet Explorer or other Web browsers.

Script Coded instructions embedded within a program to enable customization or add interactivity to a Web page.

Scroll bars A vertical and/or horizontal bar located on the edge of the browser window enables you to move the content so that the hidden parts of the Web page come into view.

Search engine A computer program used to locate files, documents, and Web pages containing specific keyword queries or natural language queries.

Search engine software A program that compares the keyword or natural language query to the words and references stored in the index and then generates the search results list that displays in the browser window.

Search filter Techniques used to limit the search results to specific criteria, such as format of the results.

Search results list The list of Web pages containing the query and displayed as links that are located by any given search engine.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A protocol that uses encryption during the transmission of data over the Internet. SSL is used to protect data such as credit card numbers or other personal information being sent from Web sites.

Security The technologies involved with features keeping your data and computer free from unauthorized access.

Sent folder An e-mail folder that stores a copy of all of the e-mail messages that you send out.

Server A network-connected computer that stores files and has administrative software to control access to network resources.

Service pack Product updates and patches to solve software bugs and security issues available as downloads from a Web site or by installing from a CD.

Shouting Typing in all capital letters—the online equivalent of raising your voice.

Signature file A file that you create that contains your name and other information that can be automatically added to every e-mail you send.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) The protocol that handles outgoing messages and routes them to their destination.

SMTP See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

Social networking Interaction with others conducted at Web sites providing opportunities to view or exchange e-mails, discussions threads, blog entries, photos, audio files, and videos with other participants.

Spam Unsolicited and unwanted e-mail sent to several recipients at once generally for the purpose of advertising.

Specialized database An electronic database that contains information and materials on a specific topic.

Spider (Crawler or Bot) A program that searches the Internet for new documents and Web files, and then catalogs the words found within the documents and files for use in a search engine.

Sponsored links See Sponsored sites.

Sponsored results See Sponsored sites.

Sponsored sites (Sponsored results or Sponsored links) Web sites that try to market themselves by paying search engine owners to be shown as a listing in search result lists.

Spyware A software program that invades your computer and gathers information about you by tracking your keystrokes and collecting a list of the Web sites that you visit.

SSL See Secure Sockets Layer.

Start button A Windows feature found in the lower left corner of the screen that, when clicked, causes the Start menu to display.

Start menuA Windows feature that provides access to all the programs and helpful features on your Windows computer through a series of commands.

Status bar A horizontal bar near the bottom of the browser window that provides information about the security of a site, information about a link’s destination as you roll over a link, or information about any submenu command.

Stop words Short words connecting the more important words of a natural language query and having little impact on the meaning.

Streaming A method of delivering digital content to a computer so that the content plays as soon as it is received by the computer.

Style sheet A set of rules for how to format fonts, characters, and page layout within an HTML document.

Subject catalog See Directory.

Subject line An e-mail component created by the sender and summarizing in a couple of words the main idea of the e-mail message.

Submenu A detailed list of commands, displayed after clicking a command, which enables you to perform several tasks to enhance your browsing experience.

Subscription fee A fee charged by ISPs for Internet access for a specified period of time.

Surf See Browse.

Synchronous communication (Real-time communication) A form of electronic communication in which two or more participants are online at the same time and are communicating with each other.

Synonym Words that mean nearly the same thing.

Syntax The order followed when writing the parts of a Web address or code.

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Tab An area of the browser window that displays the name of the Web site and also enables navigation between Web sites.

Tabbed browsing A feature that enables visitors to open multiple Web pages within the same browser window.

Tags Categories for the organization of blog topics that are added to the blog when the blog is written.

Taskbar A part of the Windows operating system that displays buttons for all open programs and files.

TCP/IP See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

Telnet A protocol that enables you to access a remote computer to complete tasks as if you were sitting at the keyboard of that computer.

Template A predesigned document that can be added to or modified for use in a blog, Web page, or word-processed document.

Temporary Internet files A browser feature where copies of Web pages, images, and media that are saved for faster viewing.

Text shortcut A series of letters that sound like the word they stand for.

The Net See Internet.

The Web See World Wide Web.

THOMAS A part of the Library of Congress created in response to a directive made by Congress to make federal legislative information available to the public.

Thread An article and all of the posts that follows along a specific topic in a newsgroup.

Thumbnail A graphic depicting a miniature version of each open Web page that can be used for navigation.

TILE.NET A well-respected search tool used for locating Internet references for newsletters, discussion lists, USENET newsgroups, vendors for computer products, Internet Service Providers, and Web design companies.

TimestampAn expression of time—hour or day—to indicate the most recent update for a blog or a Web site.

Title bar A blue, horizontal bar at the top of the browser window that identifies the application and displays the name of the active Web page.

TLD See Top-level domain.

To line An e-mail component that provides the name and e-mail address of the recipient or recipients of the e-mail message.

Toolbar An area of a software program’s interface that provides text or buttons which, when clicked, enable you to perform certain commands and tasks within that software program.

Tools button A button that enables you to perform several commands that are frequently used while browsing the Web such as those related to safe browsing strategies, the display of toolbars within the browser interface, and setting browsing preferences.

Top-level domain (TLD) The highest level in the Domain Name System expressed as the last part of the domain name and is represented by a period followed by three letters.

Trackback A blog feature that notifies a blogger when comments are made to one of the posts. The ability to generate a trackback is programmed into the blog software to automate the notification process.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) The set of rules or protocols for data transmission and communications over the Internet governing the breakup of data into packets, the routing of the packets, and the subsequent reassembly of packets back into data.

Transmission media The physical structure of a network that carries the data packets over media such as telephone wires, the cable over which cable TV is transmitted, or types of radio frequencies.

Trash folder An e-mail folder that stores e-mail that you have deleted until you empty this folder.

Trojan See Trojan horse.

Trojan horse A malware program that masquerades as a game or other application but once installed, executes destructive code.

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Uniform Resource Locator (URL) The text-based address of a Web site with which the Web browser software locates the Web resources associated with the Web site.

Unmoderated list A mailing list in which messages and replies are not screened before being sent out to all members of the mailing list.

Unmoderated newsgroup A newsgroup in which articles and posts are not screened before being sent to the news server.

Urban legend A story or hoax that has been circulated for extended time periods and may actually have been acted on by recipients of the e-mail.

URL See Uniform Resource Locator.

USENET An electronic bulletin board for research discussion among researchers and scientists where individuals could read, post, or reply on a specific topic of interest by using a system of threaded discussion boards.

User ID A unique name that identifies who uses the e-mail account.

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Video conferencing The transmission of video and audio data for the purpose of synchronous communications between two or more geographically separated participants.

Video log (vlog) A blog that uses video as its primary content.

Virtual high school A high school that offers a full catalog of courses where the course is completed entirely online.

Virtual library A specialized type of directory that has resources organized by information professionals, such as librarians.

Virus An unwanted piece of code or program sent to you that runs on your system causing unexpected or damaging effects.

Vlog See Video log.

Vlogger The author of a vlog.

Vlogosphere The collection of vlogs found on the World Wide Web including the entire vlogging community of vloggers and readers.

Vodcast The download of video files from the World Wide Web to compatible computers or portable video players using RSS technology.

Voice messaging An e-mail client’s feature that enables you to record and send a digital voice message in place of an e-mail message.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) See Internet telephony.

VoIP See Internet telephony.

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W3C See World Wide Web Consortium.

WAV A standard type of audio file developed by Microsoft.

Weather.com A well-known television resource, providing weather forecasts and information 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Web browser A software program that enables individuals to view HTML documents and access files related to those documents.

Web cam A small camera that connects to your computer and transmits your image or whatever is immediately in front of the camera lens across the Internet to a receiving computer for display on that computer’s monitor.

Web log (Blog) A Web site that takes the form of a journal or news site, is updated frequently, and represents the personality of the author of the Web site.

Web page The individual documents on the Web.

Web server The software that controls access to the HTML documents that comprise the Web site.

Web site A collection of related Web pages that resides on an organization’s host computer.

Web-based e-mail system An e-mail system that is provided by using the World Wide Web as the client. Web-based e-mail accounts are accessible from any computer that has an Internet connection and a Web browser installed.

Web-based forum See Message board.

Webcast A recorded audio and video presentation stored on a Web server and replayed from a Web site.

Whiteboard A chat and IM feature that enables each participant to view and interact with a screen, Web page, document, or drawing.

WHOIS A specialized search tool that searches multiple domain name registration databases for registry information.

Wi-Fi See Wireless fidelity.

Wiki A Web site that enables anyone to add, edit, or delete content after that individual has registered with the Web site.

Wikiengine The software program that runs the wiki on a Web server, enabling edits to be made to the wiki page and then displaying a revised version of the wiki page.

Wikipedia The largest, most well-known wiki in the form of an online encyclopedia created by contributing editors.

WikiWord The navigational feature of a wiki that functions as a hyperlink.

Wildcard character An asterisk that is used to take the place of any number of missing letters in a keyword.

Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) A wireless Internet connection made over radio frequencies that occurs at very high speeds.

Wizard A program that helps complete the installation process of software such as plug-ins.

World Wide Web (WWW) The part of the larger Internet that displays interconnected hypertext documents containing text, graphics, and multimedia.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) An organization developed to create standards and guidelines for the Web.

WormA program that multiplies by itself so that it eventually fills a hard drive or a network drive, either slowing it down or makes it crash.

WWW See World Wide Web.

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XML See Extensible Markup Language.

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