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Chapter 13
Liquids and Solids

13-01

Labeled

Title
Gas and liquid volumes
Caption
There are over a thousand times as many molecules in a given volume of a liquid as there are in the same volume of a gas.
Keywords
Avogadro's number, gas, liquid, volume
13-02

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Title
Dipole forces
Caption
An idealized representation of dipole forces in a liquid (a) and a solid (b). In a real liquid or solid, interactions are more complex.
Keywords
dipole force, dipole, solid, liquid
13-03

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Title
Boiling temperature for compounds versus molar mass
Caption
Boiling point trends for compounds of hydrogen, with elements in Group IVA, Group VA, Group VIA, and Group VIIA. Hydrogen bonding accounts for the unusually high boiling points of H2O, HF, and NH3, which violate the general trend that smaller molecules have lower boiling points.
Keywords
hydrogen bond, intermolecular force, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, bond, boiling point
13-04ab

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Title
Hydrogen bonding in ice
Caption
(a) The hydrogen bonding in ice is indicated here by dotted lines between ball-and-stick structures of water molecules. Each water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and two nonbonding electron pairs that can participate in hydrogen bonding with other molecules. These intermolecular attractions cause water molecules to form hexagonal crystal arrangements. (b) The hexagonal arrangement present in ice is less compact than liquid water, shown by the open crystal structure.
Keywords
hydrogen bonding, ice, hexagonal, arrangement, crystal,freezing, ball-and-stick, intermolecular
13-05ab

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Title
Momentary dipoles in hydrogen
Caption
Electron cloud shapes on hydrogen molecules. (a) Average picture with no net dipole. (b) Instantaneous pictures with momentary dipoles. These transient dipoles can induce a momentary dipole (c) in a neighboring molecule. The transient dipoles are constantly changing, but the net result is attraction.
Keywords
momentary dipole, hydrogen, dispersion force, London force, electron cloud
13-06

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Title
Viscosity and molecular shape
Caption
(a) Carbon tetrachloride, CCl4, consists of small, symmetrical molecules with fairly weak intermolecular forces. It has a low viscosity. (b) Octadcane, C18H38, consists of long molecules with fairly strong intermolecular forces. It has a relatively high viscosity.
Keywords
viscosity, London, dispersion force, intermolecular force, carbon tetrachloride, octadecane
13-08

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Title
Molecule in body of liquid
Caption
Molecules within the body of a liquid are attracted equally in all directions. Those at the surface, however, are pulled downward and sideways, but not upward.
Keywords
surface tension, liquid, intermolecular force
13-09

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Title
Liquid evaporating from an open container
Caption
A volatile liquid evaporates from an open container. The rate of evaporation of a particular liquid depends on the temperature of the liquid and the amount of exposed surface area.
Keywords
evaporate, vaporization, volatile, liquid, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol
13-10

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Title
Equilibrium vapor in closed containers
Caption
(a) Diagram of a liquid with its vapor at equilibrium in a closed container at a given temperature. (b) The same system at a higher temperature. The equilibrium vapor pressure is higher at the higher temperature , shown by the presence of more water molecules in the vapor phase in (b).
Keywords
dynamic equilibrium, vapor, vapor pressure, condensation, vaporization
13-11

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Title
Boiling point of water at different altitudes
Caption
The boiling point of water at different altitudes is shown for (a) sea level, ( b) Pike's Peak, Colorado, at 4400 m, and (c) Mount Everest at 8800 m.
Keywords
boiling point, elevation, atmospheric pressure, vapor pressure, sea level, Mount Everest, Pike's Peak
13-12

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Title
Distillation apparatus
Caption
A distillation apparatus. A mixture is heated in the flask at the left. The vapors formed travel up the vertical column, are then condensed in the cooled tube angled downward toward the right, and are finally collected in the flask at the right.
Keywords
distillation, distillate, volatile, nonvolatile, vaporize, condense, apparatus
13-13

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Title
Cubic crystal lattices
Caption
The diagram shows three types of crystal lattices based on the cube. They are (a) simple cubic, (b) body-centered cubic, and (c) face-centered cubic. The location of elements having body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic lattice structures are indicated on the periodic table.
Keywords
simple, face-centered, body-centered, cubic, crystalline, crystal, lattice
13-14

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Title
Crystal structure of diamond
Caption
The ball-and-stick diagram shows the crystal structure of diamond, a covalent network solid. Each corner or intersection of lines represents a carbon atom. Notice the tetrahedral arrangement at each carbon atom.
Keywords
Crystal, structure, diamond, tetrahedral, carbon, allotrope, covalent, ball-and-stick
13-15

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Title
Graphite structure
Caption
The ball-and-stick diagram of graphite shows the that the carbon atoms form a network of hexagonal rings within each plane. The planes are stacked in layers that can slide over one another.
Keywords
graphite, ball-and-stick, hexagonal ring, lubricant, allotrope
13-16

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Title
Buckminsterfullerene molecule
Caption
The ball-and-stick diagram shows carbon atoms in a spherically shaped arrangement like the surface of a soccer ball with 60 carbon atoms in interconnected 5- and 6-member rings forming buckminsterfullerenes, or Buckyballs. They were first prepared in 1985.
Keywords
buckminsterfullerene, buckyballs, fullerenes, carbon, C60, allotrope, geodesic, spherical
13-17

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Title
Nanotube cable
Caption
The diagram shows a ball-and-stick model of a nanotube with carbon atoms in six-membered rings bonded in honeycomb-shaped, cylindrical structures. Nanotubes having strands narrower than a human hair and 10 times stronger than steel were first prepared in 1997.
Keywords
nanotube, cable, hexagonal, cylindrical, carbon
13-18

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Title
Heating curve for water
Caption
The graph of the heating curve for water shows the temperature as a function of the time of heating or energy. Note that the molar heat of vaporization (40.7 kJ) is much greater than the molar heat of fusion (5.98 kJ).
Keywords
heating curve, heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, water
13-20

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Title
Water molecule interactions
Caption
TThe diagrams show the interaction of polar water molecules with negative ions, on the left, and positive ions, on the right.
Keywords
water, dipole, solvent, ionic

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Title
H2 Bond Formation
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Close Packing
Caption
Keywords

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