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Chapter 12
Gases

12-02a-c

Labeled

Title
Gases diffusing
Caption
Gases diffuse; they tend to flow spontaneously from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. (a) With the stopcock closed, no flow is possible. (b) With the stopcock open, there is a net flow of gases from the region of higher concentration on the left to the region of lower concentration on the right. (c) With the stopcock open, there is no net flow of gas once there is a uniform mixture and concentrations are equal.
Keywords
diffusion, spontaneous, concentration
12-03

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Title
Pool table analogy
Caption
Gas molecules can be compared to billiard balls in random motion, bouncing off each other and off the sides of the pool table.
Keywords
pool table, analogy, random motion, billiard balls, kinetic theory
12-04

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Title
Kinetic molecular theory
Caption
Orange particles of gas in 3D cube illusrate the kinetic molecular theory. According to the kinetic molecular theory, particles of a gas are in constant motion, occasionally bouncing off one another and off the walls of their container.
Keywords
random motion, kinetic theory, elastic, collision, assumptions
12-05

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Title
Barometers
Caption
(a) A scientific laboratory barometer. (b) Schematic representation of a mercury barometer.
Keywords
barometer, pressure measurement, atmospheric, mercury
12-07

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Title
Boyle's law demonstration
Caption
Boyle's law can be demonstrated by adding liquid mercury to the open end of a J-tube. As the pressure is increased by addition of mercury, the volume of the sample of trapped gas decreases. Gas pressure and volume are inversely related; one increases when the other decreases.
Keywords
Boyle, Boyle's law, J-tube, gas pressure, volume, inverse
12-08

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Title
Effect of pressure on the volume of a gas
Caption
A diagram illustrating the effect of different pressures on the volume of a gas. The diagram demonstrates the behavior of a gas as described by Boyle's law. When the pressure on the gas is doubled, the volume is reduced by half.
Keywords
Boyle's law, gas pressure, volume, inverse
12-09

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Title
Graph of gas volume versus pressure
Caption
The figure shows a graph of experimental data involving pressure and volume changes for a fixed sample of gas at constant temperature. The shape of the curve follows an inverse relationship. As pressure increases from 1 to 2 atmospheres, volume decreases from 60 to 30 mL. Compare the volumes at 3 atm and 6 atm of pressure.
Keywords
Boyle's law, graph, gas pressure, volume, inverse
12-10

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Title
Bicycle tire and pump
Caption
A simple bicycle tire pump demonstrates Boyle's law. A pressure increase from P1 to P2 causes a volume decrease from V1 to V2. Pressure and gas volume are inversely related.
Keywords
Boyle's law, graph, gas pressure, volume, constant temperature, inverse, bicycle, tire pump, gas law
12-11

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Title
Volume - temperature relationship for gases
Caption
The volume-temperature relationship for gases at constant pressure. Gas volume and temperature are directly proportional.
Keywords
Charles, constant pressure, volume, temperature, directly proportional, Kelvin, gas law
12-13a-c

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Title
Obeying Gay-Lussac's law
Caption
(a) A pressurized can of hair spray or deodorant has a constant volume. Pressure increases as temperature increases. Heating the can could cause it to explode or rupture. (b) A can of food must be punctured or opened before (c) heating directly over a campfire. These examples illustrate Gay-Lussac's law; pressure and temperature are directly proportional.
Keywords
Gay-Lussac, pressure, temperature, constant volume, directly proportional, Kelvin, gas law
12-15

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Title
Molar volume
Caption
The diagram shows a molar volume at STP in the form of a 1) cube and as 2) 5 gal. paint bucket plus 1 gal. The molar volume of any gas at STP is 22.4 L.
Keywords
molar volume, STP, 22.4 L
12-16

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Title
Dalton's Law of partial pressures
Caption
The figure shows that the pressure of the pressure of the mixture of O2 and N2 (rightmost tank) is the sum of the pressures in the O2 and N2 tanks. Dalton's law of partial pressures states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each gas.
Keywords
Dalton's law, partial pressure, gas law
12-17ab

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Title
Collecting gas by displacement of water
Caption
To collect a gas by displacement of water, the bottle is filled completely with water and inverted in a large vessel of water (a). As the gas to be collected is released into the bottle, gas bubbles rise to fill the bottle as water in the bottle is displaced. When the water levels inside and outside the bottle are equal, pressures inside and outside the bottle are also equal (b). At this point Patm=Pgas colected+Pwater vapor.
Keywords
displacenment of water, gas, collection, gas pressure
12-18

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Title
Reaction of hydrogen gas with oxygen gas
Caption
The reaction of hydrogen gas with oxygen gas is shown. Two volumes of H2 react with one volume of O2 to give two volumes of water vapor. The total volume for reactants is 3, and the total volume for products is 2. Each volume contains the same number of molecules. The same numbers of hydrogen and oxygen atoms have been represented as reactants and as products. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
Keywords
mole ratio, volume ratio, gas, hydrogen gas, oxygen gas, Gay-Lussac
12-19

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Title
Reaction of carbon monoxide gas with oxygen gas
Caption
The reaction of carbon monoxide gas with oxygen gas. Two volumes of CO react with one volume of O2 to give two volumes of CO2. The total volume for reactants is 3, and the total volume for products is 2. Each volume contains the same number of melecules. Volume ratios and mole ratios are the same for the gases. Also, the same numbers of carbon and oxygen atoms have been represented as reactants and as products. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
Keywords
mole ratio, volume ratio, gas, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen gas, Gay-Lussac
12-20

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Title
Reaction of nitrogen gas with hydrogen gas
Caption
The reaction of nitrogen gas with hydrogen gas. One volume of N2 reacts with three volumes of H2 to give two volumes of NH3. The total volume for reactants is 4, and the total volume for products is 2. Each volume contains the same number of molecules. Volume ratios and mole ratios are the same for gases. Also, the same numbers of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms have been represented as reactants and as products. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions.
Keywords
mole ratio, volume ratio, gas, nitrogen, hydrogen gas, ammonia
12-21

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Title
Stoichiometric conversions for gases, liquids and solids
Caption
Stoichiometric conversions for gases, liquids, and solids. Conversion factors are shown alongside arrows.
Keywords
stoichiometric conversions, gas, liquid, solid, solution, ideal gas, molar volume

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Title
Kinetic Energy in a Gas
Caption
Keywords

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Title
P-V Relationships
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Work of Gas Expansion
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Diffusion of Bromine Vapor
Caption
Keywords

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