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Chapter 8
Chemical Bonds

08-01

Labeled

Title
Sodium and chlorine reaction
Caption
Sodium, a soft silvery metal, reacts with chlorine, a greenish gas, to form sodium chloride (ordinary table salt).
Keywords
sodium, chlorine, sodium chloride, ionic bond, table salt
08-03

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Title
Ball and stick model of sodium chloride
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of a sodium chloride crystal. The diameter of a chloride ion is about twice that of a sodium ion.
Keywords
sodium, chloride, NaCl, ball-and-stick, sodium chloride, table salt, ionic, bond, compound
08-05

Labeled

Title
Nonpolar covalent bonds
Caption
Nonpolar covalent bonds involve electrons that are shared equally between the atoms in diatomic molecules such as H2, N2, and Cl2.
Keywords
nonpolar, covalent bond, diatomic, molecule
08-06

Labeled

Title
Relative electronegativity
Caption
Relative electronegativities of some representative elements on the periodic table. Electronegativities have no units; they are arbitrary numbers with relative values.
Keywords
electronegativity, covalent bond, periodic table, property
08-07

Labeled

Title
General trends in electronegativities
Caption
General trends in electronegativity are shown on the periodic table. In general, electronegativity increases within a period, going from left to right. Electronegativity tends to decrease within a family, going from top to bottom.
Keywords
electronegativity, trend, covalent bond, periodic table, property, ionization energy
08-08

Labeled

Title
Representations of hydrogen chloride
Caption
Representations of the polar hydrogen chloride molecule. (a) A space-filling model of the molecule, HCl. (b) A diagram depicting the unequal distribution of electron density in the hydrogen chloride molecule. (c) Shared electrons in the bond are attracted unequally toward chlorine, the more electronegative atom, so chlorine carries a partial negative charge, symbolized *-. The symbols *+ and *- indicate partial positive and partial negative charges, respectively. (d) Polarity can also be symbolized by the crossed arrow that points toward the more electronegative atom in a covalent bond.
Keywords
hydrogen chloride, polar, covalent bond, space-filling, model, shared electrons, partial charge, electonegative, molecule
08-08-04un

Labeled

Title
Chemical bonds
Caption
The figure illustrates how the type of bond occuring in the formation of a chemical compound depends upon the difference in electronegativity of the atoms.Bonding may be nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic, depending upon the electronegativity difference. Small differences in electronegativity favor nonpolar covalent bonding, while large differences in electronegativity favor ionic bonding.
Keywords
chemical bond, nonpolar, polar, covalent, ionic, compound, electronegativity
08-09

Labeled

Title
Metallic bonding diagram
Caption
Metallic bonding consists of positively charged metal ions in a three-dimensional lattice while loosely held valence electrons move freely in a fluidlike manner through the metal. Metals with the most loosely held electrons are the best conductors of electricity.
Keywords
metal, metallic, bond, lattice, valence, electron, positive ion, conductivity
08-10

Labeled

Title
Conductivity tests
Caption
A simple conductivity apparatus can be used to classify substances as (a) nonconducting nonelectrolytes. (b) conducting solutions of electrolytes, and (c) metallic solids.
Keywords
conductivity, conducting, solubility, covalent, ionic, metallic, test, nonconducting, nonelectrolyte
08-11

Labeled

Title
Ionic solids dissolving in water
Caption
As ionic solids dissolve in water, they dissociate. Several water molecules surround and associate with each positive and negative ion as the crystal dissolves. Notice that positive ions are attracted by the oxygen atom of water, while negative ions are attracted by the more positive hydrogen atoms of water. Nonpolar solvents do not dissolve ions; they lack the strong attractive forces required to hold ions in solution.
Keywords
ionic, dissolve, dissociate, polar, nonpolar, gasoline
08-12

Labeled

Title
Polarity of HCL and CO2
Caption
Both hydrogen chloride gas (a) and carbon dioxide gas (b) molecules have polar bonds. The electron density is balanced in CO2 to give a nonpolar linear-shaped mulecule, but the electron density in HCl is unbalanced so the molecule is quite polar.
Keywords
polar, nonpolar, HCl, CO2, covalent, bond, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride
08-12-01un

Labeled

Title
Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide structure
Caption
Both carbon monoxide, CO, and carbon dioxide, CO2 are colorless, odorless gases. The molecules differ by the presence of an additonal oxygen atom. The gases have very dissimilar properties.
Keywords
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, CO, CO2, photosynthesis, combustion, fire extinguisher, dry ice
08-12-07un

Labeled

Title
Linear arrangement
Caption
The diagram shows linear arrangements formed by two tied balloons and the BeF2 molecule.
Keywords
linear arrangement, balloons, BeF2,, CO2, octet rule
08-12-09un

Labeled

Title
Trigonal planar arrangement
Caption
The diagram shows trigonal planar arrangements formed by three tied balloons and the BF3 molecule.
Keywords
trigonal planar arrangement, balloons, BF3, BCl3, SO3, octet rule
08-12-10

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Title
Tetrahedral arrangement
Caption
The diagram shows tetrahedral arrangements formed by four tied balloons and the CH4 molecule.
Keywords
tetrahedral arrangement, balloons, CH4, CCl4, covalent
08-13

Labeled

Title
Water: A bent molecule
Caption
Water, with a nonlinear bent shape, can be pictured inside a tetrahedron. The two nonbonding electron pairs are directed toward two corners of the tetrahedron, while the bonds to the two hydrogen atoms are directed toward two other corners of the tetrahedron. The true H-O-H bond angle is 104.5o, not the 109.5o angle present in a tetrahedral arrangement.
Keywords
VSEPR, water, nonlinear, tetrahedral, H2O, bent molecule
08-14

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Title
Water molecule
Caption
The water molecule has a nonlinear bent shape with a bond angle of 104.5o.
Keywords
VSEPR, water, nonlinear, tetrahedral, H2O, bent, molecule
08-15

Labeled

Title
Ammonia molecule
Caption
The ammonia (NH3) molecule model. (a) The pyramidal ammonia molecule can be pictured inside a tetrahedron. (b) A space-filling model of ammonia.
Keywords
VSEPR, Ammonia, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, NH3, molecule, polar
08-18

Labeled

Title
Methane molecule
Caption
(a) The tetrahedral methane molecule is nonpolar. (b) A space-filling model of CH4.
Keywords
VSEPR, methane, tetrahedral, CH4, molecule, nonpolar
08-19

Labeled

Title
Periodic table showing covalent bonds
Caption
The number of covalent bonds formed by an element can be predicted by its location in the periodic table.
Keywords
covalent, bond, periodic table, unpaired electron
08-20

Labeled

Title
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules
Caption
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules is responsible for the unusually high melting point and boiling point of water compared to other molecules of similar molar mass.
Keywords
hydrogen bonding, covalent, melting point, water molecule
08-21

Labeled

Title
Hydrogen bonding
Caption
Hydrogen bonding in hydrogen fluoride and in water.
Keywords
hydrogen bonding, water, hydrogen fluoride, HF, H2O, covalent

Labeled

Title
Bimolecular Reaction
Caption
Keywords

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Title
CFC's and Stratospheric Ozone
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Chirality
Caption
Keywords

Labeled

Title
Stratospheric Ozone
Caption
Keywords

Labeled

Title
VSEPR
Caption
Keywords

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