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Chapter 5
Atomic Structure: Atoms and Ions

05-00-06un

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Title
Bumpersticker
Caption
The bumpersticker says "I'm in an excited state!"
Keywords
bumpersticker, Bohr, excited state, atom
05-00-10aun

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Title
Bohr diagrams with Lewis symbols
Caption
Bohr diagrams with Lewis symbols of a sodium atom, a positively charged sodium ion, a chlorine atom, and a negatively charged chlorine ion. In a Bohr diagram, the circle represents the atomic nucleus and the arcs represent the energy levels. The number of electrons in each level is also indicated. The electrons in the outer energy level are called valence electrons.
Keywords
Lewis, electron-dot, Bohr digram, atom, ion, sodium, chlorine
05-00-10bun

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Title
Bohr diagrams with Lewis symbols
Caption
Bohr diagrams with Lewis symbols of a chlorine atom and a negatively charged chlorine ion. In a Bohr diagram, the circle represents the atomic nucleus and the arcs represent the energy levels. The number of electrons in each level is also indicated. The electrons in the outer energy level are called valence electrons.
Keywords
Lewis, electron-dot, Bohr digram, atom, ion, chlorine
05-00-11un

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Title
Electron configuration of hydrogen
Caption
The diagram shows the electron configuration of hydrogen in the ground state.
Keywords
electron configuration, hydrogen, ground state, energy level
05-03

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Title
Crookes gas discharge tube
Caption
(a) Diagram of a Crookes gas discharge tube. (b) Deflection of the beam in a magnetic field inside a Crookes discharge tube. The zinc sulfide coating on the metal strip in the tube glows when struck by electrons.
Keywords
gas discharge tube, Crookes, cathode ray, magnetic field, electrode, charged particles
05-04

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Title
Diagram of Thompson's apparatus
Caption
Thomson's apparatus showing deflection of an electron beam in an electric field. The screen is coated with zinc sulfide, a substance that glows when struck by electrons.
Keywords
Thompson's apparatus, electric field, electron beam, cathode, anode, charged particles
05-05

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Title
Diagram of Goldstein's apparatus
Caption
Goldstein's apparatus for study of positive particles uses a modified Crookes tube with holes in the cathode. These holes allow for the observation of electrons emitted by the cathode, as well as posive charges formed when cathode rays knock electrons form neutral gas atoms.
Keywords
Golstein, positive charge, canal rays, cathode ray, Crookes tube, electron
05-06

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Title
Thompson's atomic model
Caption
Thomson's "plum pudding" model of the atom.
Keywords
Thompson, atomic modle, plum pudding, electron, proton
05-07

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Title
Diagram of Millikan's oil drop experiment
Caption
Millikan's oil drop experiment determined the charge of the electron.
Keywords
Millikan, oil drop, electron charge
05-09

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Title
Diagram of radioactive rays
Caption
Separation of radioactive rays in an electric field.
Keywords
radioactive rays, electric field, magnetic field, alpha, beta, gamma
05-10

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Title
Diagram of Rutherford's gold foil experiment
Caption
Rutherford's gold foil experiment.
Keywords
Rutherford, gold foil, experiment, alpha, scattered, nucleus
05-11

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Title
Explanation for gold foil experiment results
Caption
Model explaining the results of Rutherford's experiment. The diagram shows the atoms in the gold foil and the paths of the alpha particles when encountering the foil.
Keywords
Rutherford, gold foil, alpha particle, nucleus
05-14

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Title
Electromagnetic waves
Caption
As the wavelength of a wave decreases, the frequency increases. Electromagnetic waves with a low frequency (a) have a long wavelength. Electromagnetic waves with a high frequency (b) have a short wavelength.
Keywords
electromagnetic wave, wavelength, frequency
05-15

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Title
The electromagnetic spectrum
Caption
The electromagnetic spectrum. The diagram shows the frequency, energy, wavelength, energy source, and type of radiation for the various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Keywords
electromagnetic, spectrum, wavelength, frequency, radiation, band
05-16

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Title
Diagram of a line spectrum
Caption
The diagram shows how the light from a flame in which a test sample is being heated can be passed through a prism to create a line spectrum.
Keywords
line spectrum, characteristic property, prism
05-18

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Title
Two electrons on a ladder
Caption
The diagram illustrates an analogy between electron levels in an atom and the rungs of a ladder. Electrons can be only at specific energy levels, not between levels.
Keywords
analogy, Bohr, energy level, hydrogen spectrum, ladder
05-19

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Title
Energy absorption and emission
Caption
The processes of absorption and emission of energy by electrons within an atom. (a) Diagram of match under atom illustrating the absorption of energy. b) Diagram of starburst to the side of atom illustrating the emission of energy.
Keywords
absorption, emission, electron, excited state, ground state
05-20

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Title
Energy level transitions
Caption
The figure shows the possible electron shifts between energy levels in atoms that may produce the lines found in spectra. Not all the lines are in the visible portion of the spectrum. Electron transitions from higher levels to n=I produce ultraviolet light, transitions to n=2 give visible light, and transitions to n=3 give infrared radiation.
Keywords
energy level, transitions, line spectrum
05-21

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Title
Bohr model of atom
Caption
Bohr visualized the atom as planetary electrons circling a nuclear sun. This figure shows an atom with three orbitting elctrons.
Keywords
Bohr, atomic model, energy level, electron, planetary
05-22

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Title
Bohr diagram of an atom
Caption
A Bohr diagram for the atom of an element pictures specified numbers of electrons in distinct energy levels.
Keywords
Bohr, atomic model, energy level, electron
05-23

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Title
Bohr diagrams of first 20 elements
Caption
The figure shows the Bohr diagrams of the first 20 elements along with the placement of the corresponding elements in the periodic table.
Keywords
Bohr diagram, valence, electron, energy level
05-25

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Title
s and p orbitals
Caption
Charge cloud representations of s and p atomic orbitals. Each orbital is a mathematical function that corresponds to a region within an atom for a maximum of two electrons with opposite spin.
Keywords
charge cloud, probability, Shrodinger, atomic orbital
05-26

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Title
Evolution of atomic model
Caption
From the time of Dalton to Schrodinger, our model of the atom has undergone many modifications.
Keywords
atom, model, atomic, Dalton, Schrodinger
05-28

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Title
Charge cloud representations of 1s, 2s, and 3s orbitals
Caption
The diagram illustrates the charge cloud representations of 1s, 2s, and 3s orbitals.
Keywords
charge cloud, s orbital, sublevel, electron probability
05-29ab

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Title
Representations of p orbitals
Caption
a) Charge cloud representation of a p orbital. b) Outline representation of three p orbitals with different spatial orientations.
Keywords
charge cloud, outline representation, p orbital, sublevel, electron
05-30

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Title
Representation of three p sublevel orbitals on the same axis
Caption
Representation of a cluster of three p orbitals on the same axes to give a p sublevel that can accommodate a maximum of three pairs of electrons.
Keywords
outline, representation, p orbital, sublevel, electron
05-31

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Title
Atomic orbitals
Caption
The chart shows the orbital shapes, the number of orbitals per sublevel, and the number of lobes per orbital for the s, p, d, and f sublevels.
Keywords
atomic orbitals, orbital shape, sublevel, lobes
05-32

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Title
Electron arrangement of elements
Caption
Electron arrangements of elements are closely related to position in the periodic table.
Keywords
electron arrangement, periodic table, s, p, d, f, block
05-33

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Title
Electron sublevel filling order
Caption
The order of filling electron sublevels is related to the periodic table. Start at the top of the periodic table and follow the arrows as you move across and down the table through subsequent periods from period 1 through period 7.
Keywords
periodic table, filling order, electron, sublevel
05-34

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Title
Regular filling order of electron sublevels
Caption
The regular order of filling electrons in sublevels of atoms is shown in this diagram.
Keywords
periodic table, filling order, electron, sublevel
05-35

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Title
Electron configurations and the periodic table
Caption
The diagram shows the patterns followed by elements in the columns of the periodic table.
Keywords
electron configuration, periodic table, transition metal, element
05-35-01UN

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Title
Circle for orbital diagram
Caption
Circles are used to represent orbitals in an orbital diagram.
Keywords
orbital, diagram, s, p
05-35-02UN

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Title
Electron pair representation
Caption
Orbital diagram for an electron pair.
Keywords
orbital, diagram, electron pair
05-35-03UN

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Title
Single electron representation
Caption
Orbital diagram for a single electron.
Keywords
orbital, diagram, single electron
05-35-04UN

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Title
Alternate electron pair representation
Caption
Alternate orbital diagram for an electron pair.
Keywords
orbital, diagram, electron pair
05-36

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Title
Electron energy level diagrams
Caption
Electron energy level diagrams. Electrons fill lower energy orbitals first, in the order specified. Notice that higher sublevels are closer together in energy than are lower sublevels.
Keywords
electron energy diagram, orbital, filling order, electron
05-36-01UN

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Title
Alternate single electron representation
Caption
Alternate orbital diagram for a single electron.
Keywords
orbital, diagram, single electron

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Title
Electron Affinity
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Electron Configurations
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Hybridization
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Ionization Energy
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Millikan Oil Drop Experiment
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Optical Activity
Caption
Keywords

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Photoelectric Effect
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Radial Electron Distribution
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Representing Substances
Caption
Keywords

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