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Chapter 4
Elements, Atoms, and the Periodic Table

04-00-02una

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Title
Stacks of dimes and nickels
Caption
Analogy: Counting coins or atoms by weighing out specific masses.
Keywords
analagy, atomic mass, mole, Avagadro's number
04-00-02unb

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Title
Water molecule
Caption
A molecule of water, H2O, consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.
Keywords
molecule, water, H2O
04-01

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Title
Symbols
Caption
The use of symbols is not unique to chemistry. Symbols can be quite helpful-when you know what they mean. The figure shows alchemist' symbols and modern symbols for some chemical elements. It also illustrates the use of symbols for arithmetic, money, and music.
Keywords
symbol, alchemist
04-03

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Title
Abundance of elements by atoms
Caption
Abundances of elements in the universe as in percercent of total atoms.
Keywords
atomic abundance, hydrogen, helium, universe, pie chart
04-04

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Title
Abundance of elements by mass
Caption
Abundances of elements in the Earth's crust, water, and atmosphere in percent by mass.
Keywords
earth, crust, element, abundance, pie chart
04-05

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Title
Elements of the body by mass
Caption
Elements of the human body in percent by mass.
Keywords
abundance, human body, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, pie chart
04-06

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Title
Periodic table of elements
Caption
Elements are classified as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals, as shown on this periodic table.
Keywords
periodic table, elements, metal, nonmetal, metalloid
04-08

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Title
Nitrogen gas
Caption
Nitrogen gas consists of diatomic molecules, that is, molecules containing two atoms.
Keywords
nitrogen, diatomic, chemical bond
04-09

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Title
Diatomic molecules
Caption
The diatomic molecules: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2.
Keywords
diatomic, halogen, molecule
04-10

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Title
Silicon and sand
Caption
(a) The element silicon is used extensively in computer chips. (b) Common sand (shown magnified) is composed of silicon dioxide, a compound of silicon and oxygen.
Keywords
metalloid, semiconductor, silicon, sand, silicon dioxide, computer chip
04-15

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Title
The law of definite proportions
Caption
Verification of the law of definite proportions.
Keywords
Berzelius, law, definite proportions, lead sulfide
04-16

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Title
Electrolysis of water
Caption
Electolysis of water. During electrolysis, water decomposes to give hydrogen gas and oxygen gas in a 2-to-1 volume ratio when energy is supplied by a battery or other source of direct current (dc).
Keywords
electrolysis, water, decomposition
04-18

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Title
Definite proportions
Caption
The law of definite proportions. Berzelius' experiment with lead and sulphur are interpreted in terms of Dalton's atomic theory.
Keywords
Dalton, Berzelius, definite proportions, lead sulfide
04-19

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Title
Multiple proportions
Caption
The law of multiple proportions. With two atoms of nitrogen, the atom ratios of oxygen for the three compounds are 1:2:4. Also, with 28.0 g of nitrogen, the mass ratios of oxygen for the three compounds are 1:2:4. thus both the mass ratios (last column) and the atom ratios (first column) are in the same simple proportions for each compound.
Keywords
definite proportions, multiple proportions, nitrogen, compound
04-20

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Title
Electrical charges
Caption
Attraction and repulsion of electrical charges. Particles with unlike charges attract one another (a). Those with like charges repel one another (b).
Keywords
electrical charge, attract, repel
04-20-01UN

Labeled

Title
Bumpersticker
Caption
The Bumpersticker says "Opposites attract, What's YOUR charge?"
Keywords
bumpersticker, chemistry, charge, attract
04-23

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Title
Atom
Caption
Protons and neutrons are packed into the tiny nucleus which has a diameter that is about one hundred-thousandth of the diameter of an atom.
Keywords
atom, nucleus, proton, neutron
04-24

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Title
Hydrogen isotopes
Caption
The isotopes of hydrogen; protium, deuterium, and tritium.
Keywords
hydrogen, isotope, protium, deuterium, tritium
04-25

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Title
Atomic masses
Caption
Atomic masses of elements are averages of isotopic masses. The figure illustrates examples of the average mass of samples of bromine and a chlorine.
Keywords
atomic mass, isotopic mass, bromine, chlorine

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Title
Electrolysis of Water
Caption
Keywords

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Title
Multiple Proportions
Caption
Keywords

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