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Chapter 3
Fundamental Measurements

03-00-03un

Labeled

Title
Bumpersticker
Caption
The bumpersticker says "Cryogenics is cool." Research and industrial operations involving extermely low temperatures utilize cryogenic conditions.
Keywords
cryogenics, bumper sticker
03-02

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Title
Wrenches with metric and English units
Caption
If you want a wrench that is the next size smaller than an 11-mm wrench, it's easy--use a 10-mm wrench. SI units are easier to work with than English units. If you have a 7/16-inch wrench, the next one smaller is marked 3/8-inch, not 6/16-inch (assuming the wrenches are in 1/16-inch intervals).
Keywords
English, metric, SI, units
03-05

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Title
Metric volume relationships
Caption
One cubic decimeter has a volume equal to 1000 cm3; 1.00 cm3 equals 1.00 mL. Also, 1000 mL equals one liter.
Keywords
metric volume, decimeter, liter, L, mL, cm3, dm3
03-07

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Title
Laboratory apparatus for volume measurement
Caption
Laboratory apparatus for measuring liquid volumes.
Keywords
metric volume, pipet, buret, graduated cylinder, flask, volumetric, measurement
03-09

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Title
Mass balance
Caption
A simple balance.
Keywords
mass, balance, measurement
03-12

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Title
Precision and accuracy
Caption
A dart board analogy of precision and accuracy.
Keywords
dart, precision, accuracy, uncertainty
03-13

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Title
Uncertainty of volume measurement
Caption
A volume can be approximated to 0.01 mL when the calibrations are shown in tenths, as they are in this figure. The volume 6.23 mL has three significant figures.
Keywords
uncertainty, significant figures, digits, measurement
03-14

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Title
City signs
Caption
Which city has its population reported more precisely, based on significant figures?
Keywords
significant figures, round off, precision
03-14-01un

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Title
Scientific notation, positive exponents
Caption
Scientific notation for exponent power of +2.
Keywords
scientific notation, exponent
03-14-02un

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Title
Scientific notation, negative exponents
Caption
Scientific notation for exponent power of -3.
Keywords
scientific notation, exponent
03-15

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Title
Factors of ten
Caption
What fraction is a drop in a 5-gallon bucket?
Keywords
drops, volume measurement, part per thousand, part per million, part per billion
03-17

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Title
Mass and density of metal
Caption
The masses of 1.00 cm3 of several metals. For the metals shown, magnesium is the least dense and gold is the most dense.
Keywords
mass, density, metal
03-19

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Title
Hydrometers
Caption
Hydrometers can be used to measure the specific gravity of a solution. (a) A hydrometer can be used to check the specific gravity of an antifreeze solution to determine the level of protection provided at cold temperatures. (b) The hydrometer shown here can measure specific gravities from 0.700 to 0.770.
Keywords
specific gravity, hydrometer, antifreeze
03-20

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Title
Pycnometer
Caption
Pycnometers can be used for precise density and specific gravity determination for liquids.
Keywords
pycnometer, density, specific gravity
03-21

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Title
Temperature scales
Caption
A comparison of the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin temperature scales.
Keywords
temperature, measurement, scale, Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin
03-22

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Title
Heat energy
Caption
A bathtub of water at a given temperature has more heat energy than does a cup of water at the same temperature.
Keywords
heat energy, temperature

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