Chapter 11: Earthquakes

Chapter Test

Select the most appropriate response for each of the following questions.

1. Most earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of elastic energy stored in rock that has been subjected to great stress.  
2. Earthquake body waves are divided into two types called primary (P) waves and secondary (S) waves.  
3. The location of the source of an earthquake is referred to as its __________.  

4. The epicenter of an earthquake is the location on the surface directly above the focus.  
5. Earthquake waves that travel through Earth's interior are called body waves.  
6. The "springing back" of rock to its near-original shape after an earthquake is called __________.  

7. The adjustments that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes called foreshocks.  
8. Following a major earthquake, a series of smaller earthquakes, called __________, often occurs.  

9. P waves are "push-pull" waves.  
10. Of the seismic waves produced by an earthquake, which type travels fastest?  

11. Fluids (gases and liquids) cannot transmit P waves.  
12. Which type of earthquake wave is a compressional wave?  

13. The study of earthquakes is called seismography.  
14. The instruments used to record earthquakes are called seismographs, and the records they produce are called seismograms.  
15. To locate an epicenter, the distance from six or more different seismic stations must be known.  
16. Most earthquakes occur __________.  

17. The farther an earthquake recording station is from an earthquake, the greater the difference in arrival times of the P and S waves.  
18. The Mercalli intensity scale ranks earthquakes according to __________. [Hint]

19. The most violent earthquake to jar North America during the last century occurred in __________.  

20. The damage caused to a building by an earthquake depends on the __________.  

21. In unconsolidated materials saturated with water, earthquake vibrations can generate a phenomenon called liquefaction.  
22. Large seismic sea waves produced by earthquakes are called __________.  

23. No reliable method exists for making short-range earthquake predictions.  
24. The slow, continual movement along many faults is referred to as __________.  

25. The best prospects for making useful earthquake predictions involve forecasting magnitudes and locations on time scales of years, or perhaps even decades.  
26. Examine this site about the San Andreas fault. What might be a good explanation of the fact that vegetation is locally different on opposite sides of the fault?  

27. According to the information at this San Andreas fault site, up to how much displacement occurred in the Point Reyes area in 1906?  

28. Using the information at this site, determine which of the following statements is true.  

29. According to the information at this site, most of the world's largest earthquakes occur as a result of which type of stress?  

30. According to the information at this site, most earthquakes in Nevada are the result of __________ faults.  

31. Almost 95 percent of the energy released by earthquakes originates in a few relatively narrow zones that wind around the globe.  
32. Where would you expect to find the greatest number of deep earthquakes?  

33. A Wadati-Benioff zone would most likely occur near __________.  

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