EARTH: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Geology

Chapter Test

sphenophyllum2_ism_shad.jpg Choose the best possible answer to the following questions for all of "Chapter 1."

1. The two broad areas of geology are physical geology and structural geology.  
 
2. More than 2300 years ago, Aristotle's keen observations and experiments helped the early Greeks correctly explain many things about the natural world.  
 
3. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, catastrophists believed that Earth's landscapes had been shaped primarily by great disasters.  
 
4. Uniformitarianism is a fundamental principle of geology that states that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that govern geological processes remain unchanged through time.  
 
5. The principle of uniformitarianism indicates that ______.  

6. The geologic time scale was developed using principles of relative dating.  
 
7. The law of superposition and the principle of fossil succession are each used for relative dating.  
 
8. The theory of plate tectonics provides geologists with a comprehensive model of Earth's internal workings.  
 
9. The age of Earth is about 6.4 billion years.  
 
10. All science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manner that is comprehensible through careful, systematic study.  
 
11. The scientific method is the standard used by scientists so that _________.  

12. The geological time scale has been constructed based upon which of the following?  

13. A scientific hypothesis is a tentative (or untested) explanation.  
 
14. Scientific theories that explain a large number of interrelated aspects of the natural world are called paradigms.  
 
15. As the Earth was forming, an early period of chemical segregation established the basic divisions of its interior.  
 
16. There is a fixed path that scientists always follow that leads unerringly to scientific knowledge.  
 
17. The Earth and the other planets formed at the same time from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula.  
 
18. A system is a group of interacting or interdependent parts that form a complex whole.  
 
19. Earth can be thought of as consisting of four spheres: the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, solid Earth, and biosphere.  
 
20. Approximately how much of the Earth's surface is covered by oceans?  

21. Humans are not considered parts of the Earth system.  
 
22. The Earth system is powered by two parts: the Sun, and heat from burning fossil fuels.  
 
23.  

24.  

25. All of the following are fundamental Earth systems except _______.  

26. The composition of Earth's core is thought to be an iron-nickel alloy with minor amounts of oxygen, silicon, and sulfur.  
 
27. Earth's outermost layer, consisting of the crust and upper mantle, is called the lithosphere.  
 
28. Earth's outer core is liquid, whereas the inner core is solid.  
 
29. Over 82 percent of Earth's volume is contained in the crust.  
 
30. As defined by composition, Earth's internal structure consists of the core, mantle, and crust.  
 
31. Shields (flat expanses composed largely of crystalline rocks), are parts of stable continental interiors.  
 
32. On average, continental rocks are more dense than the rocks of the oceanic crust.  
 
33. The boundary between the continents and the deep-ocean basins lies along the continental shelf.  
 
34. Extremely deep, relatively narrow depressions on the ocean floor are called abyssal plains.  
 
35. Magma is molten material that forms in Earth's interior where temperatures and pressures are such that rock melts.  
 
36. Lithification is a term that means "conversion into rock."  
 
37. The rock cycle illustrates the origin of the three basic rock types and the role of various geologic processes in transforming one rock type into another.  
 
38. Geology is the science that pursues an understanding of __________.  

39. The Earth system is powered by energy from two sources: __________ and __________.  

40. Earth's outermost layer, consisting of the crust and uppermost mantle, is a relatively cool, rigid shell called the __________.  

41. The __________ form(s) a continuous belt that winds for more than 70,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) around the globe.  

 




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