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Chapter 28
Synthetic Polymers

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28-00CO
Title
Super Glue
Caption
Space-filling model of a small segment of a Super Glue polymer molecule.
Notes
Super Glue starts out as methyl a-cyanoacrylate dissolved in an organic solvent. This substance is very unstable, and when it is exposed to even trace quantities of mild nucleophiles it polymerizes (the reactant molecules covalently bond to one another, generating huge product molecules). This process forms a tough flexible solid called polycyanoacrylate, which bonds together a wide variety of different materials.
Keywords
super, glue, space-filling, a-cyanoacrylate
28-00-01UN
Title
Polyethylene
Caption
Space-filling models showing three ethylene monomer molecules reacting to form a small piece of a polyethylene molecule.
Notes
Polyethylene molecules are very large, ranging in molecular weight from thousands of amu per molecule for smaller molecules to about 6 million (just under half a million carbons per molecule) for ultrahigh-molecular-weight material.
Keywords
polyethylene, space-filling, ethylene, monomer, polymer
28-00-22T02
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Table 28.2 examples of alkenes that undergo radical polymerization
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28-00-23T03
Title
Table 28.3 some radical initiators
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28-00-27UN
Title
Polymer-Chain Branching
Caption
Schematic diagrams of regions of branched polyethylene with short and long branches.
Notes
Branches in polymer strands keep the strands from stacking together efficiently and keep the resulting plastic soft rather than rigid and brittle.
Keywords
polymer-chain, branching, polyethylene
28-00-32T04
Title
Table 28.3 examples of alkenes that undergo cationic polymerization
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28-00-38T05
Title
Table 28.5 examples of alkenes that undergo anionic polymerization
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28-03
Title
Figure 28.3
Caption
Progress of step-growth polymerization.
Notes
A polymer which undergoes step growth does not have to add monomer molecules sequentially to its ends. Developing polymer molecules can couple and make larger polymer molecules as well.
Keywords
figure, 28.3, step-growth, polymerization
28-04
Title
Figure 28.4
Caption
A segment of a linear polymer which has folded back on itself several times in two regions (circled) called crystallites.
Notes
Crystalline polymers (polymers with many crystallite regions) are hard, stiff, and brittle, whereas randomly oriented polymers are soft and flexible.
Keywords
figure, 28.4, crystallites
28-05
Title
Figure 28.5
Caption
Creation of an ordered polymer.
Notes
When randomly oriented polymers are melted, extruded (pushed through a narrow opening under pressure), and resolidified, they become more ordered. Ordered polymers are stiffer and stronger than randomly oriented polymers because the chains stack together better, forming strong attractions between neighboring chains. Ordered high-molecular-weight polyethylene is nearly ten times as strong as steel on a weight basis.
Keywords
figure, 28.5, ordered, polymer, polyethylene

Title
Table 28.1 Some Important Chain Growth Polymers and Their Uses
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Table 28.6 Some Examples of Copolymers and Their Uses
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Title
Table 28.7 Properties of Polyethylene as a Function of Crystallinity
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28-00-22T02
Title
Table 28.2 examples of alkenes that undergo radical polymerization
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28-00-23T03
Title
Table 28.3 some radical initiators
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28-00-32T04
Title
Table 28.3 examples of alkenes that undergo cationic polymerization
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Notes
Keywords
28-00-38T05
Title
Table 28.5 examples of alkenes that undergo anionic polymerization
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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