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Chapter 26
Lipids

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26-00CO
Title
Stearic and Linoleic Acids
Caption
Stick models embedded in electrostatic potential maps of stearic acid and linoleic acid.
Notes
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid (found in saturated fats). Linoleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid (found in unsaturated fats). Saturated fatty acids have no carbon–carbon double bonds in their hydrocarbon "tails." They generally take up extended conformations and stack together efficiently, producing solids. Unsaturated fats have one or more C–C double bonds in their hydrocarbon tails. The double bond(s) cause the tails to fold over rather than take up an extended conformation. Unsaturated fatty-acid molecules do not stack together efficiently, and unsaturated fatty acids are generally liquid oils at room temperature. Diacylglycerol fats and oils are called lipids.
Keywords
stearic, linoleic, fatty, acids, saturated, unsaturated
26-00-02T01
Title
Table 26.1 common naturally occurring fatty acids
Caption
Notes
Keywords
26-00-03UN
Title
Fatty Acids
Caption
Space-filling models of stearic, oleic, linolenic, and linoleic acids.
Notes
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid which is a solid at room temperature. The others are unsaturated fatty acids which are oils at room temperature. Note that only stearic acid has an extended conformation.
Keywords
fatty, acids, space-filling, stearic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, saturated, unsaturated
26-00-04UN
Title
Fatty Acids
Caption
Space-filling models of stearic, oleic, linolenic, and linoleic acids.
Notes
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid which is a solid at room temperature. The others are unsaturated fatty acids which are oils at room temperature. Note that only stearic acid has an extended conformation.
Keywords
fatty, acids, space-filling, stearic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, saturated, unsaturated
26-00-05UN
Title
Fatty Acids
Caption
Space-filling models of stearic, oleic, linolenic, and linoleic acids.
Notes
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid which is a solid at room temperature. The others are unsaturated fatty acids which are oils at room temperature. Note that only stearic acid has an extended conformation.
Keywords
fatty, acids, space-filling, stearic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, saturated, unsaturated
26-00-06UN
Title
Fatty Acids
Caption
Space-filling models of stearic, oleic, linolenic, and linoleic acids.
Notes
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid which is a solid at room temperature. The others are unsaturated fatty acids which are oils at room temperature. Note that only stearic acid has an extended conformation.
Keywords
fatty, acids, space-filling, stearic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, saturated, unsaturated
26-00-13UN
Title
Fats and Oils
Caption
Space-filling models of a triacylglycerol fat and a triacylglycerol oil.
Notes
Saturated fatty acid chains pack together well in triacylglycerol molecules as well as they do in single fatty acid molecules. Furthermore, saturated fat (triacylglycerol) molecules also pack together well, so saturated fats are solids at room temperature. Triacylglycerols composed of unsaturated fatty acids do not pack together well, so unsaturated fats are generally oils at room temperature. The term "fats" is often used to refer to solid (mostly saturated) fats and the term "oils" is often used to refer to liquid (unsaturated) fats.
Keywords
fats, oils, space-filling, triacylglycerol, saturated, unsaturated
26-00-14UN
Title
Fats and Oils
Caption
Space-filling models of a triacylglycerol fat and a triacylglycerol oil.
Notes
Saturated fatty acid chains pack together well in triacylglycerol molecules as well as they do in single fatty acid molecules. Furthermore, saturated fat (triacylglycerol) molecules also pack together well, so saturated fats are solids at room temperature. Triacylglycerols composed of unsaturated fatty acids do not pack together well, so unsaturated fats are generally oils at room temperature. The term "fats" is often used to refer to solid (mostly saturated) fats and the term "oils" is often used to refer to liquid (unsaturated) fats.
Keywords
fats, oils, space-filling, triacylglycerol, saturated, unsaturated
26-00-23UN
Title
Distearylphosphatidylserine
Caption
Space-filling model of distearylphosphatidylserine.
Notes
Distearylphosphatidylserine is a phosphatidylserine. A phosphatidylserine is built from a molecule of serine (an amino acid) and a phospholipid molecule. A phospholipid molecule is built from a molecule of glycerol, two fatty acid molecules, and a molecule of phosphoric acid. Phospholipids and phosphatidylserines are found in cell membranes. Also found in cell membranes are phosphatidylethanolamines (similar to phosphatidylserines except that ethanolamine is used in place of serine) and phosphatidylcholines (choline used in place of serine).
Keywords
distearylphosphatidylserine, phospholipid, phosphatidylserine, space-filling
26-01
Title
Figure 26.1
Caption
Schematic drawing of a lipid bilayer showing closeup of molecular structure of positively charged polar phosphatidylethanolammonium head group on a lipid molecule.
Notes
Cell membranes are made from two layers of lipid molecules, with cholesterol and protein molecules interspersed throughout this bilayer at various places. The polar head groups on the lipid molecules face either into the environment outside of the cell (usually aqueous) or into the inside of the cell (which is always an aqueous environment). The nonpolar tails of the lipid molecules face toward the center of the cell membrane (bilayer), which is a nonpolar "hydrophobic" environment.
Keywords
figure, 26.1, lipid, bilayer, schematic

Title
Table 26.2 Approximate Percentage of Fatty Acids in Some Common Fats and Oils
Caption
Notes
Keywords

Title
Table 26.3 Classification of Terpenes
Caption
Notes
Keywords
26-00-02T01
Title
Table 26.1 common naturally occurring fatty acids
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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