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Chapter 22
Carbohydrates

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22-00CO
Title
Alpha and Beta d-Glucose
Caption
Electrostatic potential maps of alpha and beta d-glucose.
Notes
Alpha d-glucose is the monomer used by nature to make a wide variety of carbohydrate polymers, including starches and glycogen in the liver. Nature makes cellulose from beta d-glucose.
Keywords
alpha, beta, d-glucose, carbohydrate
22-00-01UN
Title
d-Glucose and d-Fructose
Caption
Space-filling models of d-glucose and d-fructose.
Notes
Fructose is the sugar found in fruits, and glucose is blood sugar.
Keywords
glucose, fructose, fruits, blood
22-00-59UN
Title
Maltose
Caption
Ball-and-stick model and chair conformation of the disaccharide maltose.
Notes
Maltose is made from two d-glucose molecules covalently bonded together via an a-1,4-glycosidic linkage.
Keywords
maltose, ball-and-stick, chair, conformation, d-glucose, glycosidic, linkage
22-00-60UN
Title
Cellobiose
Caption
Ball-and-stick model and chair conformation of the disaccharide cellobiose.
Notes
Cellobiose is made from two d-glucose molecules covalently bonded together via a b-1,4-glycosidic linkage.
Keywords
cellobiose, ball-and-stick, chair, conformation, d-glucose, glycosidic, linkage
22-00-61UN
Title
Lactose
Caption
Ball-and-stick model and chair conformation of the disaccharide lactose.
Notes
Lactose is made from a d-glucose molecule covalently bonded to a d-galactose molecule via a b-1,4-glycosidic linkage. Galactose is an isomer of glucose which has the opposite stereochemistry at carbon 4.
Keywords
lactose, ball-and-stick, chair, conformation, d-glucose, d-galactose, glycosidic, linkage
22-00-65UN
Title
Sucrose
Caption
Ball-and-stick model and chair conformation of the disaccharide sucrose.
Notes
Sucrose is made from a d-glucose molecule covalently bonded to a d-fructose molecule via an a-1,4-glycosidic linkage. Both sugars are tethered together via their anomeric carbons. Fructose exists in the five-membered ring a-d-fructofuranose form when bound covalently to another sugar molecule via its (fructose's) anomeric carbon.
Keywords
sucrose, ball-and-stick, chair, conformation, d-glucose, d-fructose, glycosidic, linkage
22-01
Title
Figure 22.1
Caption
Branching in amylopectin.
Notes
Amylopectin is an insoluble branched polysaccharide. The carbohydrate chains involve a-1,4-glycosidic linkages, and the branchpoints each use an a-1,6-glycosidic linkage.
Keywords
figure, 22.1, branching, amylopectin, glycosidic, linkage
22-02
Title
Figure 22.2
Caption
Comparison of the branching in amylopectin and glycogen.
Notes
Liver glycogen and plant amylopectin have similar structures, except that glycogen is more extensively branched. Glycogen branches, on average, after every 8 to 10 glucose units. Amylopectin averages about 22 glucose units between branches.
Keywords
figure, 22.2, branching, amylose, amylopectin
22-03
Title
Figure 22.3
Caption
Structure of amylose.
Notes
The a-1,4-glycosidic linkages in amylose cause this polymer to form a left-handed helix.
Keywords
figure, 22.3, glycosidic, linkage, amylose, left-handed, helix
22-04-06UN
Title
Gentamicin
Caption
Ball-and-stick model and chair conformation of gentamicin.
Notes
Gentamicin is an antibiotic made from three amino sugar monomer molecules.
Keywords
gentamicin, ball-and-stick, chair, conformation, antibiotic
22-05
Title
Figure 22.5
Caption
Blood type determination.
Notes
Type A and B blood antigens are composed of membrane-bound proteins attached to a series of sugar and aminosugar units. The outermost sugar or amino sugar units determine the blood type.
Keywords
figure, 22.5, blood, type
22-TB01
Title
Table 22.1 Configurations of the a-Aldoses
Caption
Notes
Keywords
22-TB02
Title
Table 22.2 Configurations of the p-Ketoses
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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