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Chapter 16
Reactions of Substituted Benzenes

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16-00CO
Title
Some Substituted Benzene Compounds
Caption
Ball-and-stick models of chlorobenzene, meta-bromobenzoic acid, ortho-chloronitrobenzene, and para-iodobenzenesulfonic acid.
Notes
Many natural and synthetic drugs are aromatic compounds which are made from simple substituted benzene compounds. Substituents already attached to benzene rings determine the manner in which electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions can be used to attach further substituents to these benzene rings.
Keywords
Ball-and-stick, chlorobenzene, meta-bromobenzoic, ortho-chloronitrobenzene, para-iodobenzenesulfonic
16-00-53.1UN
Title
Anisole, Benzene, and Nitrobenzene
Caption
Electrostatic potential maps of anisole, benzene, and nitrobenzene.
Notes
The electrostatic potential maps show an increase in electron density (red color) relative to unsubstituted benzene as the substituent changes from nitro (electron withdrawing) to methoxy (electron donating).
Keywords
anisole, benzene, nitrobenzene, potential, maps
16-04
Title
Figure 16.4
Caption
Orbital pictures of the pi bond formed by overlap of adjacent p orbitals in an ordinary triple bond and in benzyne.
Notes
The nonlinear alignment of the four carbon atoms in benzyne involved in the sp hybridization of the two triple-bond-bearing carbon atoms prior to bonding makes for poor overlap of the p atomic orbitals on these two carbon atoms prior to forming the triple bond, and leads to a very unstable triple bond relative to an ordinary triple bond.
Keywords
figure, 16.4, orbital, pictures, benzyne, triple, bond
16-04-75P56
Title
End-of-Chapter Problem 56
Caption
Proton NMR spectrum associated with end-of-chapter Problem 56.
Notes
The figure shows a proton NMR spectrum obtained from a compound which forms benzoic acid when reacted with an acidic solution of sodium dichromate. Determine the identity of the compound responsible for the NMR spectrum.
Keywords
end-of-chapter, problem, 56, NMR
16-TB01
Title
Table 16.1 The effects of Substituents on The Reactivity of a Benzene Ring Toward Electrophilic Substitution
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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