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Chapter 1
Electronic Structure and Bonding

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01-00-01CO
Title
Ethane, Ethene, and Ethyne
Caption
Notes
Keywords
ethane, ethene, ethyne
01-00-03UN
Title
Second Row of Periodic Table
Caption
The second row of the periodic table.
Notes
Atoms to the left of carbon have a tendency to give up electrons, whereas atoms to the right of carbon have a tendency to accept electrons.
Keywords
second, row, periodic, table, carbon, position
01-00-06T02UN
Title
Table 1.2 The Ground State Electronic Configuration of the Smallest Atoms
Caption
The ground-state electronic configurations of the lightest atoms.
Notes
The ground-state electronic configuration of an atom is a description of the orbitals occupied by an atom's electrons when they are all in the lowest available energy orbitals.
Keywords
ground-state, electronic, configuration, energy, orbitals
01-01
Title
Structures of Sodium Chloride
Caption
Sodium chloride crystals and ions.
Notes
Sodium chloride forms crystals with a distinct shape visible to the naked eye. At the submicroscopic level, sodium chloride is composed of negatively charged chloride ions and positively charged sodium ions in a regular alternating three-dimensional array.
Keywords
crystals, ions, sodium, chloride
01-01-06T03UN
Title
Table 1.3 The Electronegativities of Selected Elementsa
Caption
Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract bonding electrons toward itself.
Notes
Electronegativity increases as you move across a row to the right and increases as you go up any of the columns of the periodic table.
Keywords
Pauling, electronegativity, trend, periodic
01-01-10UN
Title
Electrostatic Potential Maps
Caption
Electrostatic potential maps for LiH, H2, and HF.
Notes
Red regions have high electron density, and are attractive to cations and positively charged regions of molecules. Blue regions are electron deficient, and are attractive to anions and negatively charged regions of molecules. Yellow and green regions have mid-range electron densities, and are relatively uncharged.
Keywords
electrostatic, potential, maps, electron, density, charge, distribution
01-01-11UN
Title
Electrostatic Potential Maps
Caption
Electrostatic potential maps for LiH, H2, and HF.
Notes
Red regions have high electron density, and are attractive to cations and positively charged regions of molecules. Blue regions are electron deficient, and are attractive to anions and negatively charged regions of molecules. Yellow and green regions have mid-range electron densities, and are relatively uncharged.
Keywords
electrostatic, potential, maps, electron, density, charge, distribution
01-01-16.1UN
Title
Lewis Structures
Caption
Lewis structures of H2O, H3O+, HO–, and H2O2 showing lone-pair electrons.
Notes
Lewis structures show how atoms are bonded to one another, and depict formal charges and lone-pair electrons on atoms.
Keywords
lone-pair, Lewis, structures, formal, charges, water, hydronium, hydroxide, hydrogen, peroxide
01-01-171
Title
Electrostatic Potential Maps
Caption
Electrostatic potential maps for the hydronium ion, water, and the hydroxide anion.
Notes
The electrostatic potential maps show an increase in electron density (red color) on the oxygen atoms going from the hydronium ion (an acid) to the hydroxide anion (a base).
Keywords
electrostatic, potential, maps, electron, density, hydronium, water, hydroxide
01-01-36UN
Title
1s and 2s Atomic Orbitals
Caption
An orbital is a three-dimensional region around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron.
Notes
An electron in a 1s orbital can be anywhere within the 1s sphere, but a 2s atomic orbital is more complex. There is a part of the orbital, known as a node, where the probability of finding an electron falls to zero.
Keywords
orbitals,1s, 2s, node, electron
01-01-37UN
Title
Nodes
Caption
A node is a region where a standing wave has an amplitude of zero; the string rests motionless at the nodes with no transverse displacement.
Notes
Nodes are regions where wave activity (motion of a guitar string or probability of finding an electron) falls to zero.
Keywords
node, amplitude, zero, wave, activity, guitar, string, electron, probability
01-01-38UN
Title
Nodal Planes for p Orbitals
Caption
p Atomic orbitals have two lobes and are dumbbell-shaped. The two lobes are of opposite phase.
Notes
A nodal plane passes through the center of the nucleus, bisecting the two lobes of the p orbital. Because the standing wave has zero amplitude at the node, there is zero probability of finding an electron in the nodal plane of the p orbital.
Keywords
nodal, plane, p, orbital, lobes, probability, electron
01-01-39UN
Title
Degenerate 2p Atomic Orbitals
Caption
Three degenerate 2p atomic orbitals.
Notes
The px orbital is symmetrical about the x-axis, the py orbital is symmetrical about the y-axis, and the pz orbital is symmetrical about the z-axis.
Keywords
p orbitals, degenerate, px, py, pz
01-01-40UN
Title
Sigma Bonds
Caption
Sigma bonds form when two s orbitals overlap.
Notes
The electrons in a sigma bond are symmetrically distributed about the internuclear axis (an imaginary line between the two nuclei).
Keywords
sigma, bond, overlap, internuclear, axis, s, orbitals
01-02
Title
Bond Length for Hydrogen Atoms
Caption
The change in potential energy that occurs as two 1s atomic orbitals approach each other.
Notes
There is a net release of energy when a covalent bond forms. The internuclear distance at minimum energy is the length of the hydrogen–hydrogen covalent bond.
Keywords
covalent, bond, length, orbitals, hydrogen-hydrogen, minimum, potential, energy, 1s
01-03
Title
Combining Atomic Wave Functions
Caption
The wave functions of two hydrogen atoms can interact to reinforce each other (top) or cancel each other (bottom).
Notes
Bonding results when two orbitals with the same phase interact. When two out-of-phase atomic orbitals overlap, they cancel each other and produce a node between the nuclei.
Keywords
wave, in-phase, out-of-phase, node, atomic, orbitals, bonding, hydrogen
01-04
Title
Hydrogen MO Diagram
Caption
Atomic and molecular orbitals of H and H2.
Notes
Before covalent bond formation, each electron is in an atomic orbital. After covalent bond formation, both electrons are in the bonding molecular orbital. The antibonding molecular orbital is empty.
Keywords
bonding, antibonding, hydrogen, atomic, orbital, electrons, MO, diagram, bonding, molecular
01-05
Title
p Orbital Bonding (end-to-end)
Caption
End-on overlap of two p orbitals to form a sigma bonding molecular orbital and a sigma antibonding molecular orbital.
Notes
If the overlapping lobes of the p orbitals are in phase, a constructive bonding molecular orbital forms. If the lobes are out of phase, a destructive antibonding molecular orbital forms.
Keywords
overlap, bonding, antibonding, end-to-end, end-on, sigma, orbital
01-06
Title
p Orbital Bonding (side-to-side)
Caption
Side-to-side overlap of two parallel p orbitals to form a pi bonding molecular orbital and a pi antibonding molecular orbital.
Notes
A bond formed as a result of side-to-side overlap of p atomic orbitals is called a pi bond. Side-to-side overlap of two in-phase p atomic orbitals forms a pi bonding molecular orbital, while side-to-side overlap of out-of-phase p orbitals forms a pi antibonding molecular orbital.
Keywords
pi, bond,overlap,in-phase,out-of-phase,side-to-side, p, atomic, orbitals, bonding, antibonding
01-07
Title
MO Diagram for MOs Made from p Atomic Orbitals
Caption
MO diagram showing relative energies of all types of molecular orbitals which can be made from p atomic orbitals.
Notes
p Atomic orbitals can overlap end-on to form sigma bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals. The bonding combination has less energy than the antibonding combination. p Atomic orbitals can also overlap side-to-side to form pi bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals. The pi molecular orbitals have energies greater than those of sigma bonding orbitals and less than those of sigma antibonding orbitals.
Keywords
p, atomic, orbitals, overlap, end-on, sigma, bonding, antibonding, pi, side-to-side, energies
01-08
Title
CO Pi Bond Formation
Caption
MO diagram for C–O pi molecular orbital formation.
Notes
Side-to-side overlap of a p atomic orbital from carbon with a p atomic orbital from oxygen results in pi bonding and pi antibonding molecular orbitals. The bonding combination has greater electron density on oxygen (electronegativity), whereas the antibonding combination has smaller electron density on the more electronegative atom.
Keywords
side-to-side, overlap, carbon-oxygen, bonding, antibonding, electronegativity, electronegative
01-08-01UN
Title
Problem 14
Caption
Indicate the kind of molecular orbital (s, s*, p, or p*) that results when the orbitals are combined as indicated.
Notes
End-on combinations yield sigma atomic orbitals and side-to-side combinations yield pi molecular orbitals. Combining orbitals by overlapping like phases yields bonding combinations, whereas combining orbitals by overlapping opposite phases yields antibonding combinations.
Keywords
problem, 14, s, s*, p, p*
01-08-02
Title
Models of Methane
Caption
Four different ways to represent a methane molecule.
Notes
Molecules can be represented by giving structural formulas, showing ball-and-stick models, showing space-filling models, or by showing electrostatic potential maps.
Keywords
molecules, structural, formulas, ball-and-stick, models, space-filling, electrostatic, potential, maps, methane, represent
01-09
Title
Energy Promotion Potential Diagram
Caption
Energy diagram showing the results of 2s—2p electron promotion followed by formation of four covalent bonds.
Notes
By promoting a 2s electron out of the filled 2s orbital, carbon can use both 2s electrons and both 2p electrons to form a total of four bonds. This results in lower-energy molecules, and an octet of bonding electrons in carbon's valence shell.
Keywords
promotion, promoting, electron, lower-energy, octet
01-10
Title
Formation of sp3 Hybrid Orbital
Caption
Combination of 25% of the character of an s orbital with 75% of the character of a p orbital yields an sp3 hybrid orbital.
Notes
The positive lobe of the p orbital combines constructively with the s orbital, whereas the negative lobe of the p orbital combines destructively with the s orbital, yielding a hybrid orbital with a large positive lobe and a small negative lobe.
Keywords
positive, lobe, negative, constructively, destructively, combination, hybrid, s, p, orbital
01-11
Title
Formation of Four sp3 Hybrid Orbitals
Caption
One s atomic orbital combines with three p atomic orbitals to make four sp3 hybrid orbitals.
Notes
An sp3 hybrid atomic orbital is more stable than a p atomic orbital, but not as stable as an s atomic orbital.
Keywords
s, atomic, orbital, p, stable, orbitals
01-12
Title
Structure of Methane
Caption
Four sp3 orbitals are directed toward the corners of a tetrahedron.
Notes
The orbital structure of methane shows the overlap of the four sp3 orbitals of carbon with the s orbitals of four hydrogen atoms to form four sigma (covalent) bonds between carbon and hydrogen.
Keywords
methane, tetrahedral, tetrahedron, sp3, overlap
01-13
Title
Orbital Diagram for Ethane
Caption
Overlap of two sp3 hybrid orbitals on carbon atoms in ethane to form sigma bonding and antibonding orbitals.
Notes
The C–C bond in ethane is formed by overlap of two sp3 hybrid orbitals on bonded carbon atoms. Each C–H bond is formed by overlap of an sp3 hybrid orbital on carbon with the s atomic orbital on the attached hydrogen atom.
Keywords
C-C, bond, overlap, hybrid, orbital, bonded, C-H, ethane
01-13-02
Title
Structure of Ethane
Caption
The two carbons in ethane are tetrahedral. Each carbon uses four sp3 atomic orbitals to form four covalent bonds.
Notes
All of the bonds in methane and ethane are sigma bonds because they all are formed by end-on overlap of atomic orbitals.
Keywords
ethane, sp3, orbitals, covalent, bonds, sigma, end-on, overlap
01-14
Title
Bonding in Ethane
Caption
The carbon–carbon bond is formed by sp3—sp3 overlap, and each carbon–hydrogen bond is formed by sp3—s overlap.
Notes
One sp3 orbital of one carbon overlaps an sp3 orbital of the other carbon to form the carbon–carbon bond. The remaining three sp3 orbitals of each carbon overlap an s orbital of hydrogen to form carbon–hydrogen bonds.
Keywords
ethane, sp3, orbitals,overlap,carbon-carbon, carbon-hydrogen
01-15
Title
sp2 Hybrid Orbitals
Caption
Carbon bearing three sp2 hybrid orbitals and an unhybridized p orbital shown from two different viewpoints.
Notes
An sp2 hybrid orbital is made from 1/3 of an s orbital and 2/3 of a p orbital. The angle between the sp2 orbitals is 120 degrees, and the unhybridized p orbital is oriented perpendicular to the plane containing the three sp2 orbitals. Carbon starts with four orbitals in its valence shell. After hybridization it must still have a total of four orbitals.
Keywords
orbitals, sp2, unhybridized, valence, shell, 1/3, 2/3, 120, degrees
01-16
Title
Structure of a Double Bond
Caption
One bond in a double bond is a sigma bond, and the other is a pi bond. The carbon–hydrogen bonds are all sigma bonds.
Notes
The carbon–carbon sigma bond in ethene is formed by sp2—sp2 overlap, and the carbon–carbon pi bond is formed by side-to-side overlap of a p orbital of one carbon with a p orbital of the other carbon.
Keywords
sigma, bond, pi, double, overlap, side-to-side, carbon-carbon, carbon-hydrogen
01-16-01UN
Title
Structure of Ethene
Caption
Ethene consists of a carbon–carbon double bond and four carbon–hydrogen single (sigma) bonds.
Notes
Both bonds in the double bond of ethene contribute to its strength. In a carbon–carbon double bond, four electrons hold the carbons together.
Keywords
ethene, structure, double, bond, four, electrons
01-17
Title
sp-Hybridized Carbon Atom
Caption
Shown is a carbon atom bearing two sp hybrid orbitals (orange) and two unhybridized p orbitals (purple).
Notes
The two sp hybrid orbitals are 180 degrees from one another. The two unhybridized p orbitals are oriented perpendicular to the two sp hybrid orbitals and also perpendicular to each other. In molecules with carbon–carbon triple bonds, the sp orbitals form the sigma bonds, and the p orbitals form the pi bonds.
Keywords
sp, orbitals, p orbital, carbon, triple, bond, 180, degrees
01-18
Title
Orbital Structure of Ethyne
Caption
Ethyne consists of a carbon–carbon triple bond and two carbon–hydrogen single bonds.
Notes
The first bond of a carbon–carbon triple bond is formed by the overlap of two sp hybrid orbitals on adjacent carbons in an end-on fashion. The second and third bonds in a carbon–carbon triple bond are formed by side-to-side overlap of unhybridized p orbitals on adjacent carbons. The carbon–hydrogen bonds are formed by the overlap of an sp hybrid on carbon with an s orbital on hydrogen.
Keywords
ethyne, triple, bond
01-18-01
Title
Models of Ethyne
Caption
Structural formula, orbital model, space-filling model, and potential map of ethyne.
Notes
The two carbon atoms in a triple bond are held together by six electrons. Each of the unhybridized p orbitals engages in side-to-side overlap with a parallel p orbital on the other carbon, with the result that two pi bonds are formed.
Keywords
ethyne, triple, bond, orbital, model, space-filling, potential, map
01-18-02UN
Title
The Methyl Cation
Caption
Orbital depiction, two ball-and-stick models, and potential map of the methyl cation.
Notes
A positively charged carbon atom forms its three covalent bonds using three sp2 orbitals. Its unhybridized p orbital remains empty. Because the three sp3 orbitals lie in a plane, a carbocation is flat.
Keywords
cation, positive, charge, methyl, empty, orbital
01-18-03UN
Title
The Methyl Radical
Caption
Orbital, ball-and-stick, and potential-map depictions of the methyl radical.
Notes
The carbon atom in the methyl radical is sp2 hybridized. The unpaired electron occupies the p orbital.
Keywords
methyl, radical, unpaired, electron
01-18-04UN
Title
The Methyl Anion
Caption
Depictions of the methyl anion.
Notes
The methyl anion has two paired electrons (a nonbonding pair) occupying the unhybridized p orbital. The carbon atom carries a negative charge.
Keywords
anion, nonbonding, electrons, negative, charge
01-18-06UN
Title
Models of Water
Caption
Orbital, ball-and-stick, and potential-map depictions of the water molecule.
Notes
The central oxygen atom in water initially forms four sp3 hybrid orbitals. Two of these hybrids combine with s orbitals on hydrogens to make O–H single bonds. The remaining two sp3 hybrids each contain a pair on nonbonding electrons. The O–H bonds form a 104.5-degree angle about the central oxygen atom.
Keywords
water, central, oxygen, 104.5, degree, O-H
01-18-08UN
Title
Ammonia
Caption
Structure of ammonia.
Notes
The nitrogen–hydrogen covalent bonds in ammonia form as a result of the overlap of three sp3 orbitals of nitrogen and the three s orbitals of the attached hydrogen atoms. The single nonbonding pair of electrons occupies an sp3 orbital on nitrogen. Two N–H bonds form a 107.3-degree angle about the central nitrogen.
Keywords
ammonia, nitrogen, 107.3, degree, angle
01-18-09UN
Title
The Ammonium Ion
Caption
Structure of the ammonium ion.
Notes
The ammonium ion has four identical nitrogen–hydrogen bonds and has no nonbonding pairs of electrons.
Keywords
ammonium, ion
01-18-10UN
Title
Problem 18
Caption
Compare the potential maps for methane, ammonia, and water. Which is the most polar molecule? Which is the least polar?
Notes
Polarity increases as charge increases, as indicated by buildup of red and blue colors on opposite sides of a potential map.
Keywords
polarity, problem, 18, potential, map, polar
01-18-11
Title
Hydrogen Fluoride
Caption
Models of hydrogen fluoride.
Notes
Fluorine builds four sp3 hybrid orbitals and uses three of them to hold nonbonding pairs of electrons and the fourth to make a sigma bond with hydrogen. Note that since fluorine is much more electronegative than hydrogen, the potential map shows a high degree of polarity.
Keywords
hydrogen, fluoride, fluorine, polarity
01-18-12UN
Title
Hydrogen Halides
Caption
Space-filling models of HF, HCl, HBr, and HI.
Notes
As the distance between the center of the hydrogen atom and the center of the halogen atom increases in this series of molecules, the bond between hydrogen and halogen weakens.
Keywords
hydrogen, halides, distance, bond, halogen
01-18-13UN
Title
Orbital Overlap In HF and HCl
Caption
Overlap of the bonding sp3 hybrid orbital of F and Cl with H in HF and HCl.
Notes
Overlap of the 1s orbital of hydrogen is better with the smaller 2sp3 hybrid orbital of fluorine than with the larger 3sp3 hybrid orbital of chlorine, resulting in a shorter, stronger bond in HF than in HCl.
Keywords
overlap, HF, HCl, 2sp3, 3sp3, hydrogen, chlorine
01-18-14UN
Title
Bond Lengths and Strengths
Caption
Hydrogen–halogen bond lengths and bond strengths.
Notes
Hydrogen halides are compounds containing a hydrogen bonded to a halogen. The bond is formed by an overlap of an sp3 hybrid orbital of the halogen with the s orbital of hydrogen. The hydrogen–halogen bond becomes weaker and longer as the atomic weight of the halogen increases.
Keywords
hydrogen, halide, halogen, bond, strength, length, atomic, weight, hydrogen-halogen
01-18-21UN
Title
Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Tetrachloride
Caption
Structures, dipole moments, and potential maps of carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride.
Notes
Although both molecules are composed of polar bonds (especially evident in the map of carbon dioxide), they are nonpolar overall because the dipole moments of the bonds cancel each other out.
Keywords
carbon, dioxide, tetrachloride, dipole, moment, polar, nonpolar
01-18-22UN
Title
Chloromethane, Water, and Ammonia
Caption
Structures and dipole moments of chloromethane, water, and ammonia.
Notes
Overall dipole moments of these molecules are greater than dipole moments of one of their bonds because bond dipole moments reinforce each other in these molecules.
Keywords
overall, dipole, moments, chloromethane, water, ammonia
01-18-26UN
Title
pH Values of Some Common Substances
Caption
The pH of a water-based substance indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in the substance.
Notes
Acidity increases with lower pH values. Compounds with a pH of 7 are neutral. Basicity increases with higher pH values.
Keywords
pH,acidity,basicity,neutral
01-18-38UN
Title
Relative Electronegativities of Second-Row Elements
Caption
Second-row elements from the periodic table increase in electronegativity from left to right.
Notes
In the series C, N, O, and F, C is least electronegative and F is most electronegative.
Keywords
second-row, elements, electronegativity, periodic, table
01-18-39UN
Title
Base Stabilities
Caption
Relative stabilities of bases bearing one negative charge made from second-row elements and hydrogen.
Notes
Anionic bases become more stable (weaker) as the atom bearing the negative charge moves to the right along a row of the periodic table, because atoms on the right-hand side of the periodic table hold excess electrons (negative charge) more easily than atoms further to the left, due to relative electronegativities.
Keywords
anionic, bases, negative, charge, second-row, stability, electronegativity
01-18-40UN
Title
Relative Acid Strengths of Second-Row Binary Acids
Caption
Acids made only of hydrogen and one other element (binary acids) increase in strength as the "other" element moves to the right along a row of the periodic table.
Notes
The stronger an acid is, the weaker its conjugate base is, and vice versa. Since weaker bases are made from elements on the right-hand side of a periodic-table row, their conjugate acids must be stronger. Thus, binary acid strengths increase as hydrogen is combined with elements progressively further to the right of a periodic-table row.
Keywords
relative, acid, strength, periodic-table, binary
01-18-41UN
Title
Methanol and Methylamine
Caption
pKa values for the conjugate acids of methanol and methylamine.
Notes
Since oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen, oxygen holds a positive charge more easily than nitrogen, making the conjugate acid of methylamine more stable (weaker) than the conjugate acid of methanol. Thus, the conjugate acid of methylamine has a higher pKa value.
Keywords
oxygen, nitrogen, methanol, methylamine, conjugate, acid, pKa
01-18-43UN
Title
Acid–Base Properties of Halides
Caption
Relative sizes of halogen atoms, relative basicities of halides, and relative acidities of halogen binary acids.
Notes
As anions are created from elements further down a column in the periodic table, they get larger, spread out electron density, and thus become more stable (weaker bases) even though the atoms become less electronegative. The corresponding binary conjugate acids become stronger as they are created from elements further down a periodic-table column.
Keywords
halogen, halide, basicities, acidities, periodic-table, electron, density
01-18-44UN
Title
Electrostatic Potential Maps of Hydrogen Halides
Caption
Halogen atoms in binary acids increase in size dramatically from HF to HI.
Notes
Halogen atoms bonded to hydrogen increase in size dramatically from HF to HI. Even though HF is clearly more polar than HI due to electronegativity differences of the halogens, iodide ion is more stable than fluoride ion because the negative charge can spread out over such a large volume in iodide relative to fluoride. This results in an increasing acid strength from HF to HI.
Keywords
electrostatic, potential, maps, halides, halogens, electronegativity, volume
01-18-56
Title
Potential Maps of Substituted Acetic Acids
Caption
Electrostatic potential maps of some substituted acetic acid molecules arranged in order of increasing substituent electronegativity.
Notes
As a substituent attached to the methyl group of acetic acid becomes more electronegative, the electron density on the oxygens of the molecule diminishes. This results in less negative charge on the oxygen atoms in the conjugate base anion, a more stable conjugate base, and a stronger acid as the substituent electronegativity increases.
Keywords
substituent, acetic, acid, substituted, potential, maps
01-19
Title
Conjugate Acid/Base Composition and pH
Caption
The relative amounts of a compound with a pKa of 5.2 in the acidic and basic forms at different pH values.
Notes
When a compound with a pKa of 5.2 is in a solution of pH 5.2, half the compound will be in the acidic form and the other half will be in the basic form. In lower pH solutions the acidic form will predominate, and in higher pH solutions the basic form will predominate.
Keywords
pKa, acidic, basic, pH, conjugate, acid, base
01-19-06UN
Title
Lewis Acids and Bases
Caption
Lewis acids accept electrons from other substances and Lewis bases donate electrons to other substances.
Notes
Substances containing atoms with nonbonding electrons (e.g., nitrogen and oxygen) are often Lewis bases, whereas substances containing atoms with octet deficiencies (e.g., boron and aluminum) are often Lewis acids.
Keywords
Lewis, acid, base, boron, aluminum, nitrogen, oxygen
01-00-06T02UN
Title
Table 1.2 The Ground State Electronic Configuration of the Smallest Atoms
Caption
The ground-state electronic configurations of the lightest atoms.
Notes
The ground-state electronic configuration of an atom is a description of the orbitals occupied by an atom's electrons when they are all in the lowest available energy orbitals.
Keywords
ground-state, electronic, configuration, energy, orbitals
01-01-06T03UN
Title
Table 1.3 The Electronegativities of Selected Elementsa
Caption
Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract bonding electrons toward itself.
Notes
Electronegativity increases as you move across a row to the right and increases as you go up any of the columns of the periodic table.
Keywords
Pauling, electronegativity, trend, periodic
01-01-26T05UN
Title
Table 1.5 Atoms bonded to a carbon.
Caption
Notes
Keywords
01-01-29T05UN
Title
Table 1.5 Groups bonded to the far right carbon.
Caption
Notes
Keywords
01-01-30T05UN
Title
Table (cont'd)Two or more identical groups considered bonded.
Caption
Electronic structures for different compounds
Notes
Compounds can be written in different forms. The condensed structures are simplified by omitting some or all of the covalent bonds (lines and dots) and listing atoms bonded to a particular carbon (or nitrogen, or oxygen) next to it with a subscript to indicate the number of such atoms.
Keywords
structure,condensed,electronic
01-01-31T05UN
Title
Table 1.5 An oxygen doubly bonded to a carbon.
Caption
Condensed structures can be written in different forms
Notes
The condensed structures are simplified by omitting some or all of the covalent bonds (lines and dots) and listing atoms bonded to a particular carbon (or nitrogen, or oxygen) next to it with a subscript to indicate the number of such atoms.
Keywords
condensed,structures
01-18-35T08UN
Title
Table 1.8 Approximate pKa values
Caption
The pKa equals the pH when the solution is at equilibrium.
Notes
The stronger the acid, the lower the pKa. Strong acids have weak,stable conjugate bases.
Keywords
pKa,conjugate,acid,base
01-TB01
Title
Table 1.1 Distribution of Electrons in the First Four Shells That Surround the Nucleus
Caption
Notes
Keywords

Title
Table 1.4 The Dipole Moments of Some Commonly Encountered Bonds
Caption
Notes
Keywords

Title
Table 1.5 Kekulé and Condensed Structures
Caption
Notes
Keywords

Title
Table 1.7 Comparison of the Bond Angles and the Lengths and Strengths of the Carbon–Carbon and Carbon–Hydrogen Bonds in Ethane, Ethene, and Ethyne
Caption
Notes
Keywords

Title
Table 1.9 The Values of Some Simple Acids
Caption
Notes
Keywords

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