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Key Concepts PowerPoint

Chapter 15
Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases

 
15-00-01UN
Title
Conjugate acid-base pairs
Caption
The products of a Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction are also acids and bases. The acid has a conjugate base and the base has its conjugate acid.
Notes
Conjugate acid-base pairs
Keywords
conjugate acid, conjugate base
15-00-02UN
Title
Water as a base
Caption
When an acid reacts with water, the water behaves as a proton acceptor to form the hydronium ion.
Notes
Water behaving as a base
Keywords
conjugate acid-base, water, base
15-00-03UN
Title
Water as an acid
Caption
When a base (like ammonia) reacts with water, a proton is transferred from water to the ammonia molecule to form the ammonium ion. Therefore, water is behaving as a proton donor.
Notes
Water behaving as an acid
Keywords
conjugate acid-base, water, acid
15-00-05UN
Title
Nitrous acid
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of nitrous acid.
Notes
Structure of nitrous acid
Keywords
nitrous acid
15-00-06UN
Title
Worked Example 15.1
Caption
Conjugate acid-base pairs for the reaction between nitrous acid and water.
Notes
Conjugate acid-base pairs for Example 15.1
Keywords
conjugate acid-base, nitrous acid
15-00-07UN
Title
Key Concept Example 15.2
Caption
For the following reaction in aqueous solution, identify the Brønsted-Lowry acids, bases, and conjugate acid-base pairs.
Notes
Key Concept Example 15.2
Keywords
acid, base, conjugate acid-base
15-00-08UN
Title
Solution to Example 15.2
Caption
Conjugate acid-base pairs for the reaction between HS-and HF.
Notes
Solution to Example 15.2
Keywords
conjugate acid-base
15-00-09UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.3
Caption
For the following reaction in aqueous solution, identify the Brønsted-Lowry acids, bases, and conjugate acid-base pairs.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.3
Keywords
conjugate acid-base
15-01
Title
Dissociation of HA
Caption
Figure 15.1 Dissociation of HA involves H+transfer to H2O, yielding H3O+and A-. The extent of dissociation is (a) nearly 100% for a strong acid, (b) considerably less than 100% for a weak acid, and (c) nearly 0% for a very weak acid.
Notes
Comparison of dissociation of a strong acid, weak acid, and very weak acid.
Keywords
strong acid, weak acid, dissociation
15-01-01TO1
Title
Strengths of acids and bases
Caption
Table 15.1 Relative strengths of conjugate acid-base pairs.
Notes
Relative strengths of conjugate acid-base pairs
Keywords
acid strength, base strength
15-01-02UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.5
Caption
The following pictures represent aqueous solutions of two acids HA (A = X or Y); water molecules have been omitted for clarity.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.5
Keywords
key concept, conjugate acid-base
15-01-03UN
Title
The hydronium ion
Caption
The structure of the hydronium ion, or hydrated H+ion.
Notes
The hydronium ion
Keywords
hydronium, acid
15-02
Title
Acidic, basic, and neutral solutions
Caption
Figure 15.2 Values of the H3O+and OH-concentrations at 25°C in acidic, neutral, and basic solutions.
Notes
Concentrations of hydronium versus hydroxide ions determine if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral
Keywords
acidic, basic, concentrations
15-03
Title
The pH scale
Caption
Figure 15.3 The pH scale and pH values for some common substances.
Notes
The pH scale and pH values for some common substances
Keywords
pH, acids, bases
15-04
Title
Acid-base indicators
Caption
Figure 15.4 Some common acid-base indicators and their color changes. Note that the color of an indicator changes over a range of about 2 pH units.
Notes
An acid-base indicator changes color within a particular pH range.
Keywords
pH, indicators
15-05
Title
Universal indicator
Caption
Figure 15.5 (a) The color of universal indicator in solutions of known pH from 1 to 12. (b) The color of universal indicator in some familiar products gives the following approximate pH values: vinegar, pH 3; club soda, pH 4-5; household ammonia, pH >10.
Notes
The universal indicator gives a virtual rainbow of colors from pH = 1 to pH = 12
Keywords
pH, indicators
15-06-02UN
Title
Acid-dissociation constants
Caption
Table 15.2 Acid-dissociation constants at 25°C.
Notes
Acid-dissociation constants
Keywords
acids, Ka, pKa
15-06-04UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.13
Caption
The following pictures represent aqueous solutions of three acids HA (A = X, Y, or Z); water molecules have been omitted for clarity.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.13
Keywords
key concept, acid strength
15-07
Title
Problem solving involving weak acids
Caption
Figure 15.7 Steps to follow in solving problems involving weak acids.
Notes
Steps to follow in solving problems involving weak acids.
Keywords
key concept, problem-solving, weak acid
15-07-01UN
Title
Acetic acid
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of acetic acid (vinegar).
Notes
Structure of acetic acid, a weak acid
Keywords
acetic acid
15-08
Title
Dissociation of acetic acid
Caption
Figure 15.8 The percent dissociation of acetic acid increases as the concentration of the acid decreases. A 100-fold decrease in [CH3CO2H] results in a 10-fold increase in the percent dissociation.
Notes
Dissociation of acetic acid increases as its concentration decreases
Keywords
acetic acid, dissociation
15-08-02UN
Title
Carbonic acid
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of carbonic acid, a weak acid.
Notes
Structure of carbonic acid, a weak acid (For Worked Example 15.11)
Keywords
carbonic acid
15-08-03UN
Title
Sulfuric acid
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of sulfuric acid.
Notes
Structure of sulfuric acid (For Problem 15.18)
Keywords
sulfuric acid
15-08-04UN
Title
Amines as weak bases
Caption
Structures of three amines: methyl amine, dimethylamine, and hydroxylamine. The basicity of amines is due to the nonbonding pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom.
Notes
Amines as weak bases
Keywords
amines, weak bases
15-08-06UN
Title
Codeine
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of codeine, a naturally occurring amine used as a drug in painkillers and cough medicines.
Notes
Structure of codeine (for Worked Example 15.12)
Keywords
codeine, amine
15-08-07UN
Title
Strychnine
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of strychnine, an amine used as a poison for killing rodents.
Notes
Structure of strychnine (for Problem 15.20)
Keywords
strychnine
15-08-08UN
Title
Piperidine
Caption
Ball-and-stick model of piperidine, an amine found in black pepper.
Notes
Structure of piperidine (for Problem 15.21)
Keywords
piperidine
15-09-01UN
Title
Acidity of aluminum hexahydrate ion
Caption
Electrons from the waters' oxygen atoms are attracted to the Al3+thereby weakening the O-H bonds of the water molecules. A free water molecule can then act as a base and abstract an acidic proton from the hexahydrate complex.
Notes
Acidity of hydrated cations
Keywords
acidic salts, hydrates
15-09-02UN
Title
Hydrohalic acids
Caption
Electrostatic potential maps of HF, HCl, HBr, and HI.
Notes
Polarity of the hydrohalic acids
Keywords
hydrohalic acid
15-09-03UN
Title
Hydrohalic acid strength
Caption
For hydrohalic acids, a decrease in bond strength results in a stronger acid.
Notes
Relative strengths of the hydrohalic acids as a function of bond strength
Keywords
acid strength, bond strength
15-09-04UN
Title
Acid strength and electronegativity
Caption
For binary acids within the same period, acid strength increases as the difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and the other element increases.
Notes
Acid strength as a function of electronegativity
Keywords
acid strength, electronegativity
15-10
Title
Trends in binary acid strength
Caption
Figure 15.10 The acid strength of a binary acid HA increases from left to right in the periodic table, with increasing electronegativity of A, and from top to bottom, with decreasing H-A bond strength.
Notes
Acid strength increase from left to right, and from top to bottom in the periodic table
Keywords
acid strength, binary acid
15-10-03UN
Title
Strength of oxoacids
Caption
Acid strength of oxoacids is dependent on the electronegativity of the atom attached to the O-H group. As electronegativity increases, the O-H bond becomes weaker, resulting in a stronger acid.
Notes
Strength of oxoacids as a function of electronegativity
Keywords
oxoacids
15-10-04UN
Title
Trends in oxoacids
Caption
As the number of oxygen atoms attached to the chlorine atom increases, the acid strength also increases.
Notes
Strength of a series of oxoacids as a function of the number of oxygen atoms attached to the halogen
Keywords
oxoacids
15-12
Title
Lewis acid-base adducts
Caption
Figure 15.12 The reaction of the Lewis acid BF3 with the Lewis base NH3. The electrostatic potential maps show that the B atom is electron poor (blue) and the N atom is electron righ (red). The geometry about boron changes from trigonal planar in BF3 to tetrahedral in the adduct. Both boron and nitrogen use sp3 hybrid orbitals in the adduct.
Notes
Lewis acid-base adducts
Keywords
Lewis acid, Lewis base, adduct
15-12-040
Title
Key Concept Summary
Caption
Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases key concept summary.
Notes
Key concept summary Chapter 15
Keywords
key concept, summary
15-12-05UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.31
Caption
For each of the following reactions, identify the Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.31
Keywords
key concept, Brønsted-Lowry
15-12-06UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.32
Caption
The following pictures represent aqueous solutions of three acids HA (A = X, Y, or Z); water molecules have been omitted for clarity.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.32
Keywords
key concept, conjugate acid-base
15-12-07UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.33
Caption
Which of the following pictures represents a solution of a weak diprotic acid H2A? Which pictures represent an impossible situation? Explain.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.33
Keywords
key concept, weak acid
15-12-08UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.34
Caption
Which of the following pictures best represents an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid? Explain.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.34
Keywords
key concept, acid, conjugate base
15-12-09UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.35
Caption
The following pictures represent aqueous solutions of three acids HA (A = X, Y, or Z); water molecules have been omitted for clarity.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.35
Keywords
key concept, conjugate acid-base
15-12-10UN
Title
Key Concept Problem 15.36
Caption
The following pictures represent solutions of three salts NaA (A-= X-, Y-, or Z-); water molecules and Na+ions have been omitted for clarity.
Notes
Key Concept Problem 15.36
Keywords
key concept, base strength, acid-base salts
15-TB02.01UN
Title
Principal reaction:
Caption
Principal reaction:
Notes
Keywords
15-TB02.02UN
Title
Principal reaction:
Caption
Principal reaction:
Notes
Keywords
15-TB03
Title
Table 15.3 Stepwise Dissociation Constants for Polyprotic Acids at 25°C
Caption
Notes
Keywords
15-TB03.01UN
Title
Principal reaction:
Caption
Principal reaction:
Notes
Keywords
15-TB04
Title
Table 15.4 Values for Some Weak Bases and Values for Their Conjugate Acids
Caption
Notes
Keywords
15-TB04.01UN
Title
Principal reaction:
Caption
Principal reaction:
Notes
Keywords
15-TB04.02UN
Title
Principal reaction:
Caption
Principal reaction:
Notes
Keywords
15-TB04.03UN
Title
Principal reaction:
Caption
Principal reaction:
Notes
Keywords
15-TB05
Title
Table 15.5 Acid-base Properties of Salts
Caption
Notes
Keywords
15-TB05.01UN
Title
Initial Initial Initial pH Rate (M/s)
Caption
Initial Initial Initial pH Rate (M/s)
Notes
Keywords

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