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Key Concepts PowerPoint

## Chapter 5Periodicity and Atomic Structure

05-01
 Title Periodicity: atomic radius versus atomic number Caption Figure 5.1 A graph of atomic radius in picometers (pm) versus atomic number shows a rise-and-fall pattern of periodicity. The maxima occur for atoms of group 1A elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr); the minima occur for atoms of the group 7A elements. Accurate data are not available for the group 8A elements. Notes atomic radius vs. atomic number Keywords periodicity, atomic radius, atomic number
05-02
 Title Mendeleev's periodic table Caption Figure 5.2 A portion of Mendeleev’s periodic table, giving the atomic masses known at the time and showing some of the “holes” representing unknown elements. There is an unknown element (which turned out to be gallium, Ga) beneath aluminum (Al) and another one (which turned out to be germanium, Ge) beneath silicon (Si). Notes Portion of Mendeleev's periodic table Keywords periodic table, Mendeleev
05-03
 Title The electromagnetic spectrum Caption Figure 5.3 The electromagnetic spectrum consists of a continuous range of wavelengths and frequencies, from radio waves at the low-frequency end to gamma rays at the high-frequency end. The familiar visible region accounts for only a small portion near the middle of the spectrum. Note that waves in the X-ray region have a length that is approximately the same as the diameter of an atom (10-10 m). Notes Electromagnetic spectrum—a continuous range of wavelengths and frequencies Keywords electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength, frequency
05-04
 Title Wavelength and amplitude Caption Figure 5.4 Electromagnetic waves are characterized by a wavelength, a frequency, and an amplitude. (a) Wavelength (l) is the distance between two successive wave peaks, and frequency (n) is the number of wave peaks that pass a fixed point per unit time. Amplitude is the height of the maximum measured from the center line. (b) What we perceive as different kinds of electromagnetic radiation are simply waves with different wavelengths and frequencies. Notes Electromagnetic waves: a) wavelength, peak, trough, and amplitude; b) violet light and infrared radiation Keywords wavelength, amplitude
05-04-02UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 5.3 Caption (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) Which wave represents a more intense beam of light? (c) Which wave represents blue light, and which represents red light? Notes Key Concept Problem 5.3 Keywords key concept, wavelength, frequency
05-05
 Title Rainbows from white light Caption Figure 5.5 (a) When a narrow beam of ordinary white light is passed through a glass prism, different wavelengths travel through the glass at different rates and appear as different colors. (b) A similar effect occurs when light passes through water droplets in the air, forming a rainbow. Notes Prism and rainbow Keywords prism, rainbow, refraction
05-06
 Title Atomic line spectra Caption Figure 5.6 (a) The visible line spectrum of energetically excited sodium atoms consists of a closely spaced pair of yellow lines. (b) The visible line spectrum of excited hydrogen atoms consists of four lines, from indigo at 410 nm to red at 656 nm. Notes Atomic line spectra Keywords line spectra, wavelength, visible
05-07
 Title Blackbody radiation Caption Figure 5.7 The dependence of the intensity of blackbody radiation on wavelength at two different temperatures. Intensity increases from right to left on the curve as wavelength decreases. As the wavelength continues to decrease, intensity reaches a maximum and then drops off to zero. Notes Blackbody radiation Keywords blackbody, radiation, temperature
05-07-02UN
 Title Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and energy Caption Higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths correspond to higher energy radiation, while lower frequencies and longer wavelengths correspond to lower energy radiation. Notes Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and energy Keywords wavelength, frequency, energy
05-08
 Title The photoelectric effect Caption Figure 5.8 The photoelectric effect. A plot of the number of electrons ejected from a metal surface versus light frequency shows a threshold value. Increasing the intensity of the light while keeping the frequency the same increases the number of electrons ejected but does not change the threshold value. Notes The photoelectric effect—number of electrons ejected vs. light frequency Keywords photoelectric, photons, intensity
05-09
 Title Orbital energy levels Caption Figure 5.9 Orbital energy levels for (a) hydrogen and (b) a typical multielectron atom. The differences between energies of various subshells in (b) are exaggerated for clarity. Note, though, that there is some crossover of energies from one shell to another. In some atoms, a 3d orbital has a higher energy than a 4s orbital, for instance. Notes Orbital energy levels Keywords orbital, energy
05-10a-c
 Title Shapes of the s orbitals Caption Figure 5.10 Representations of (a) 1s, (b) 2s, and (c) 3s orbitals. Cutaway views of these spherical orbitals are shown on the top, with the probability of finding an electron represented by the density of the shading. Electron probability distribution plots of y2 as a function of distance from the nucleus are shown on the bottom. Note that the 2s orbital has buried within it a spherical surface of zero probability (a node), and the 3s orbital has within it two spherical surfaces of zero probability. The different colors of different regions in the 2s and 3s orbitals correspond to different algebraic signs of the wave function, analogous to the different phases of a wave, as explained in the text. Notes Shapes of the s orbitals Keywords orbital, shape, node
05-11
 Title Standing waves Caption Figure 5.11 (a) When a rope is fixed at one end and vibrated rapidly at the other, a standing wave is generated. (b) The wave has two phases of different algebraic sign, +and -, separated by zero-amplitude regions called nodes. Notes The wave has two phases of different algebraic sign, +and -, separated by zero-amplitude regions called nodes. Keywords wave, node
05-12
 Title Shapes of the p-orbitals Caption Figure 5.12 The three 2p orbitals. Part (a) is a plot giving the probability of finding a 2p electron as a function of its distance from the nucleus. Part (b) shows representations of the three 2p orbitals, each of which is dumbbell-shaped and oriented in space along one of the three coordinate axes x, y, or z. Each p orbital has two lobes of high electron probability separated by a nodal plane passing through the nucleus. The different shadings of the lobes reflect different algebraic signs analogous to the different phases of a wave. Notes Shapes of the p orbitals Keywords orbital, shape, orientation, node
05-13
 Title Shapes of the d orbitals Caption Figure 5.13 Representations of the five 3d orbitals. Four of the orbitals are shaped like a cloverleaf (a-d), and the fifth is shaped like an elongated dumbbell inside a donut (e). Also shown is one of the seven 4f orbitals (f). As with p orbitals in Figure 5.12, the different shadings of the lobes reflect different phases. Notes Shapes of the d orbitals Keywords orbital, shape, node, orientation
05-13-01UN
 Title Quantum numbers for orbitals Caption Key Concept Problem 5.15 Give a possible combinationof n and l quantum numbers for the orbital shown. Notes Key Concept Problem 5.15 Keywords key concept, orbital, quantum number
05-14
 Title Electronic energy levels Caption Figure 5.14 The origin of atomic line spectra. (a) When an electron falls from a higher-energy outer-shell orbital to a lower-energy inner-shell orbital, it emits electromagnetic radiation whose frequency corresponds to the energy difference between the two orbitals. (The orbital radii are not drawn to scale.) (b) The different spectral series correspond to electronic transitions from outer-shell orbitals to different inner-shell orbitals. Notes Electronic energy levels: the Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen Series Keywords line spectra, energy, Paschen, Balmer, Lyman
05-14-01UN
 Title The Balmer-Rydberg equation Caption The Balmer-Rydberg equation. Notes The Balmer-Rydberg equation Keywords energy, wavelength, Rydberg
05-15
 Title The spin quantum number Caption Figure 5.15 Electrons behave in some respects as if they were tiny charged spheres spinning around an axis. This spin (blue arrow) gives rise to a tiny magnetic field (green arrow) and to a fourth quantum number, ms, which can have a value of either +1/2 or -1/2. Notes According to the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can possess the same four quantum numbers. Keywords electron, spin, magnetic
05-16
 Title Effective nuclear charge (Z) Caption Figure 5.16 The origin of electron shielding and Zeff . Outer electrons are attracted toward the nucleus by the nuclear charge but are pushed away by the repulsion of inner electrons. As a result, the nuclear charge actually felt by outer electrons is diminished, and we say that the outer electrons are shielded from the full charge of the nucleus by the inner electrons. Notes Electron shielding and Zeff : nucleus, attraction, repulsion, and outer electrons Keywords nuclear charge, shielding
05-16-01UN
 Title Relationship between Zeff and orbital type Caption An electron's attraction to the nucleus is correlated to the energy level and orbital type occupied by the electron. Notes Relationship between Zeff and orbital type Keywords nuclear charge, Zeff , orbital, energy
05-16-02UN
 Title Filling the orbitals Caption Follow the aufbau principle and Hund's rule in placing electrons in the appropriate orbitals of an atom. Notes Electron orbital-filling diagrams explicitly show the number of unpaired electrons; electron configurations do not. Keywords orbital, electron, aufbau, Hund
05-16-03UN
 Title Filling the orbitals Caption Follow the aufbau principle and Hund's rule in placing electrons in the appropriate orbitals of an atom. Notes Electron orbital-filling diagrams explicitly show the number of unpaired electrons; electron configurations do not. Keywords orbital, electron, aufbau, Hund
05-16-04UN
 Title Shorthand notation for electron configuration Caption To simplify the writing of lengthy electron configurations, the symbol of a noble gas may be substituted for the appropriately filled shells and orbitals. Notes Shorthand notation for electron configuration Keywords shorthand, electron, configuration
05-17
 Title Electron configurations of the elements Caption Figure 5.17 Outer-shell, ground-state electron configurations of the elements. Notes Electron configurations of the elements Keywords electron, configuration
05-18
 Title Orbital-filling blocks of the periodic table Caption Figure 5.18 Blocks of the periodic table, corresponding to filling the different kinds of orbitals. Beginning at the top left and going across successive rows of the periodic table provides a method for remembering the order of orbital filling: 1s --> 2s --> 2p --> 3s --> 3p --> 4s --> 3d --> 4p, and so on. Notes Regions of periodic table: s block, p block, d block, f block Keywords orbital, blocks, elements
05-18-02UN
 Title Key Concept Example 5.11 Caption Identify the atom with the ground-state electron configuration shown. Notes Key Concept Example 5.11 Keywords key concept, electron, configuration
05-18-03UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 5.19 Caption Identify the atom whose ground-state electron configuration is shown. Notes Key Concept Problem 5.19 Keywords key concept, electron, configuration
05-18-04UN
 Title Atomic radii Caption The atomic radius of an atom is taken to be one-half the distance between the nuclei of two of the same atoms bound to one another. Atomic radii for individual atoms can then be used to predict the bond length between two different atoms. Notes Atomic radii of Cl—Cl, C—C, and Cl—C Keywords atom radius, bond length
05-19
 Title Atomic radii of the elements Caption Figure 5.19 Atomic radii of the elements in picometers. Notes Periodic table atomic radii of elements (in picometers) Keywords atomic radius, atomic radii
05-20
 Title Periodicity of atomic radius, atomic number, and Zeff Caption Figure 5.20 Plots of Zeff for the highest-energy electron and atomic radius versus atomic number. As Zeff increases, the valence-shell electrons are attracted more strongly to the nucleus, and the atomic radius therefore decreases. Notes Atomic radius and Zeff plotted for atomic radius (pm) vs atomic number Keywords periodicity, atomic radius, atomic number, Zeff, nuclear charge
05-20-010UN
 Title Key Concept Summary Caption Periodicity and atomic structure Key Concept Summary. Notes Key Concept Summary for Chapter 5 Keywords key concept, summary
05-20-02UN
 Title Periodic table template Caption Notes Can be used for Key Concept Problems 5.23 and 5.24 Keywords periodic table, key concept
05-20-04UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 5.25 Caption Two electromagnetic waves. Notes Key Concept Problem 5.25 Keywords key concept, intensity, energy, wavelength
05-20-05UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 5.26 Caption Orbital-filling diagram. Notes Key Concept Problem 5.26 Keywords key concept, electron configuration
05-20-07UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 5.28 Caption Three spheres representing Ca, Sr, and Br (not necessarily in that order). Notes Key Concept Problem 5.28 Keywords key concept, atomic radius
05-20-08UN
 Title Key Concept Problem 5.29 Caption Identify the orbitals and give quantum numbers for each. Notes Key Concept Problem 5.29 Keywords key concept, orbital, quantum number
05-TB01
 Title Table 5.1 A Comparison of Predicted and Observed Properties for Gallium (eka-Aluminum) and Germanium (eka-Silicon) Caption Notes Keywords
05-TB02
 Title Table 5.2 Allowed Combinations of Quantum Numbers n, l, and for the First Four Shells Caption Notes Keywords
05-TB03
 Title Table 5.3 Valence-Shell Electron Configurations of Main-Group Elements Caption Notes Keywords

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