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Chapter 18
Organic Chemistry

18-00-04un
Title
Lewis structures for carbon, and other carbon compounds
Caption
Carbon, with four valence electrons, can form four covalent bonds. Carbon's ability to bond with other carbon atoms produces a huge number of different compounds.
Notes
The enormous number of carbon-containing compounds makes it well-suited as the basis for life as we know it.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic
18-00-05un
Title
Structures of propane, isobutane, and cyclohexane
Caption
Carbon's ability to form covalent bonds with other carbon atoms leads to an astonishing variety of structures.
Notes
Propane has a chain structure, isobutane has a branched structure, and cyclohexane has a ring structure.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, chain, branch, ring
18-00-06e
Title
Carbon often forms four covalent bonds, for a tetrahedral geometry
Caption
Methane is the simplest example of a molecule with tetrahedral geometry.
Notes
More complex molecules consisting of single-bonded carbon can be thought of as being made up of multiple tetrahedra.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, tetrahedral, covalent
18-00-07f
Title
Carbon can form a double bond, for a trigonal planar geometry
Caption
Ethylene is a simple example of a molecule that contains carbon with a double bond.
Notes
Ethylene molecules can be thought of as two triangles that meet at a point in the center of the double bond.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, trigonal planar, covalent, double
18-00-08g
Title
Carbon can form a triple bond, for a linear geometry
Caption
Acetylene is a simple example of a molecule that contains carbon with a triple bond.
Notes
Acetylene molecules can be thought of as two line segments that meet at a point in the center of the triple bond.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, linear, covalent, triple
18-01
Title
Classification scheme for hydrocarbons
Caption
Hydrocarbon classification flow chart. The formulas shown only apply to open chain (noncyclic) hydrocarbons.
Notes
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made only of C and H. Saturated hydrocarbons are those that have all single-bonded carbons. Alkenes have at least one double bond, alkynes have at least one triple bond, and aromatic hydrocarbons are cyclic compounds that have electrons that are delocalized over several carbon atoms.
Keywords
carbon, organic, hydrocarbon, alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic, saturated, unsaturated
18-01-03k
Title
Methane: the simplest common hydrocarbon
Caption
Methane is a saturated hydrocarbon that consists of a single carbon atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms. The molecule assumes a tetrahedral geometry, and is nonpolar.
Notes
The structural formula is a two-dimensional representation of the molecule, and the spacefilling model attempts to represent the molecule in three dimensions. The structural formula is very closely related to the Lewis dot structure.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, tetrahedral, covalent, methane, structural formula, spacefilling model
18-01-04l
Title
Ethane: a two-carbon hydrocarbon
Caption
Ethane is a saturated hydrocarbon that consists of two carbon atoms bonded to six hydrogen atoms. The molecule can be thought of as two fused tetrahedra, and is nonpolar.
Notes
The structural formula is a two-dimensional representation of the molecule, and the spacefilling model attempts to represent the molecule in three dimensions. The structural formula is very closely related to the Lewis dot structure.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, tetrahedral, covalent, ethane, structural formula, spacefilling model
18-01-05m
Title
Propane: a three-carbon hydrocarbon
Caption
Propane is a saturated hydrocarbon that consists of three carbon atoms bonded to eight hydrogen atoms. The molecule can be thought of as three fused tetrahedra, and is nonpolar.
Notes
The structural formula is a two-dimensional representation of the molecule, and the spacefilling model attempts to represent the molecule in three dimensions. The structural formula is very closely related to the Lewis dot structure. Propane's condensed structural formula is CH3CH2CH3.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, tetrahedral, covalent, propane, structural formula, spacefilling model, condensed structural formula
18-01-07o
Title
Butane: a four-carbon hydrocarbon
Caption
Butane is a saturated hydrocarbon that consists of four carbon atoms bonded to ten hydrogen atoms. The molecule can be thought of as four fused tetrahedra, and is nonpolar.
Notes
The structural formula is a two-dimensional representation of the molecule, and the spacefilling model attempts to represent the molecule in three dimensions. The structural formula is very closely related to the Lewis dot structure. Butane's condensed structural formula is CH3CH2CH2CH3.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, tetrahedral, covalent, butane, structural formula, spacefilling model, condensed structural formula
18-01-09p
Title
n-Pentane: a five-carbon hydrocarbon
Caption
n-Pentane is a saturated hydrocarbon that consists of five carbon atoms bonded to twelve hydrogen atoms. The molecule can be thought of as five fused tetrahedra, and is nonpolar.
Notes
The structural formula is a two-dimensional representation of the molecule, and the spacefilling model attempts to represent the molecule in three dimensions. The structural formula is very closely related to the Lewis dot structure. n-Pentane's condensed structural formula is CH3(CH2)mCH3, where m = 3.
Keywords
carbon, Lewis structure, valence, electron, organic, tetrahedral, covalent, pentane, structural formula, spacefilling model, condensed structural formula, normal alkane
18-02
Title
Uses of hydrocarbons
Caption
Hydrocarbons are often used as fuels.
Notes
In general, the more carbon atoms a hydrocarbon has in its molecules, the higher the boiling point. Therefore we know some hydrocarbons as gases, some as liquids, and some as solids.
Keywords
organic, hydrocarbon, fuel
18-02-01_T01
Title
Alkanes
Caption
The normal alkanes, with up to 10 carbons.
Notes
The alkane series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n+2. Alkanes are all saturated hydrocarbons.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, condensed structural formula, normal alkane
18-02-02un
Title
n-Octane: an example of an alkane
Caption
n-Octane can be thought of as an eight-carbon "backbone," with additional H's bonded to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Notes
The alkane series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n+2. Alkanes are all saturated hydrocarbons. Octane is a major component of gasoline.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, condensed structural formula, normal alkane, octane
18-02-03un
Title
Skillbuilder 18.2: structure for C5H12
Caption
n-Pentane, C5H12, can be thought of as a five-carbon "backbone," with additional H's bonded to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets. The condensed structural formula is CH3(CH2)3CH3.
Notes
The alkane series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n+2. Alkanes are all saturated hydrocarbons.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, condensed structural formula, normal alkane, pentane
18-02-04q
Title
Isobutane: a four-carbon hydrocarbon
Caption
Isobutane differs from n-butane not in the number of atoms, but in the arrangement of the carbon backbone: isobutane has a three-carbon backbone, with a one-carbon branch from the middle carbon; n-butane has a "straight" four-carbon backbone. In both cases, additional H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Notes
The alkane series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n+2. Alkanes are all saturated hydrocarbons.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, butane, isobutane
18-02-05un
Title
Isomers of hexane: Example 18.3
Caption
In addition to n-hexane, hexane has four branched structures, as indicated by the carbon backbones.
Notes
The isomers differ not in the number of atoms, but in the arrangement of the carbon backbone: the branched hexane isomers have a four- or five-carbon backbone, with the remaining carbons branching from one or more of the middle carbons. In all cases, additional H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, hexane, isomer
18-02-06un
Title
Isomers of hexane with hydrogens shown: Example 18.3
Caption
In addition to n-hexane, hexane has four branched structures, as indicated by the carbon backbones. The hydrogens help the carbons to complete their octets.
Notes
The isomers differ not in the number of atoms, but in the arrangement of the carbon backbone: the branched hexane isomers have a four- or five-carbon backbone, with the remaining carbons branching from one or more of the middle carbons. In all cases, additional H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, hexane, isomer
18-02-07un
Title
Isomers of pentane with hydrogens shown: Skillbuilder 18.3
Caption
Pentane has, of course, a straight-chain isomer, shown at left. In addition to n-pentane, pentane has two branched structures, shown center and right. The hydrogens help the carbons to complete their octets.
Notes
The isomers differ not in the number of atoms, but in the arrangement of the carbon backbone. In all cases, additional H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, pentane, isomer
18-02-08_T03
Title
Common alkyl groups
Caption
Alkyl groups are the branches that are found in branched hydrocarbons. Their recognizable formulas led chemists to agree on names for the groups. Some of the most common are listed in this table.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached. For example, isobutane would be named 2-methylpropane.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl
18-02-09un
Title
Example 18.4: 3-ethylhexane structure
Caption
A six-C chain is longest; the base name is hexane. The third C from the left has an ethyl alkyl group, so the name is 3-ethylhexane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 3-ethylhexane
18-02-10un
Title
Example 18.4: The hexane chain in 3-ethylhexane
Caption
A six-C chain is longest; the base name is hexane. The third C from the left has an ethyl alkyl group, so the name is 3-ethylhexane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 3-ethylhexane
18-02-11un
Title
Example 18.4: The ethyl branch in 3-ethylhexane
Caption
A six-C chain is longest; the base name is hexane. The third C from the left has an ethyl alkyl group, so the name is 3-ethylhexane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 3-ethylhexane
18-02-12un
Title
Example 18.4: The numbering of the base chain in 3-ethylhexane
Caption
A six-C chain is longest; the base name is hexane. The third C from the left has an ethyl alkyl group, so the name is 3-ethylhexane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 3-ethylhexane
18-02-13un
Title
Skillbuilder 18.4: The structure for 2-methylpropane
Caption
A three-C chain is longest; the base name is propane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, so the name is 2-methylpropane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 2-methylpropane
18-02-14un
Title
Example 18.5: The structure for 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane
Caption
A seven-C chain is longest; the base name is heptane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C from the left has an ethyl group, so the name is 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane
18-02-15un
Title
Example 18.5: The heptane backbone for 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane is highlighted
Caption
A seven-C chain is longest; the base name is heptane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C from the left has an ethyl group, so the name is 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane
18-02-16un
Title
Example 18.5: The methyl and ethyl branches in 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane are highlighted
Caption
A seven-C chain is longest; the base name is heptane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C from the left has an ethyl group, so the name is 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane
18-02-17un
Title
Example 18.5: The base chain in 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane is numbered
Caption
A seven-C chain is longest; the base name is heptane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C from the left has an ethyl group, so the name is 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane
18-02-18un
Title
Skillbuilder 18.5: 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane structure
Caption
A five-C chain is longest; the base name is pentane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the third C from the left has an ethyl group, so the name is 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached. Note the alphabetical order of the group names.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane
18-02-19un
Title
Example 18.6: the structure of 2,4-dimethylpentane
Caption
A five-C chain is longest; the base name is pentane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C from the left also has a methyl group. We use Greek prefixes to indicate multiples of an alkyl group, with the main-chain carbon numbers to the left of the Greek prefix. The name is 2,4-dimethylpentane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 2,4-dimethylpentane
18-02-20un
Title
Example 18.6: the structure of 2,4-dimethylpentane, with pentane backbone highlighted
Caption
A five-C chain is longest; the base name is pentane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C from the left also has a methyl group. We use Greek prefixes to indicate multiples of an alkyl group, with the main-chain carbon numbers to the left of the Greek prefix. The name is 2,4-dimethylpentane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 2,4-dimethylpentane
18-02-21un
Title
Example 18.6: the structure of 2,4-dimethylpentane, with pentane backbone numbered and methyl groups indicated
Caption
A five-C chain is longest; the base name is pentane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C from the left also has a methyl group. We use Greek prefixes to indicate multiples of an alkyl group, with the main-chain carbon numbers to the left of the Greek prefix. The name is 2,4-dimethylpentane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 2,4-dimethylpentane
18-02-22un
Title
Skillbuilder 18.6: the structure of 2,3,5-trimethylhexane
Caption
A six-C chain is longest; the base name is hexane. The second C from the left has a methyl alkyl group, and the fourth C and fifth C from the left also have a methyl group. We use Greek prefixes to indicate multiples of an alkyl group, with the main-chain carbon numbers to the left of the Greek prefix. The name is 2,3,5-trimethylhexane.
Notes
Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. The system assigns the base name according to the longest chain in the hydrocarbon, then the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. The alkyl group is numbered by counting in from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, isomer, alkyl, 2,3,5-trimethylhexane
18-02-23r
Title
Ethylene has a double bond
Caption
Ethylene is a simple example of a molecule that contains a carbon-carbon double bond. Four H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Notes
The alkene series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n. Alkenes are all unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, spacefilling model, alkene, ethylene, ethene
18-02-25_T04
Title
Some common alkenes, with up to 6 carbons
Caption
The alkene series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Notes
Alkenes are molecules that contain a carbon-carbon double bond. The remaining C-C bonds can be single bonds. As with the alkanes, H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, condensed structural formula, alkene
18-02-26t
Title
Acetylene has a triple bond
Caption
Acetylene (ethyne) is a simple example of a molecule that contains a carbon-carbon triple bond. Two H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Notes
The alkyne series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n-2. Alkynes are all unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, spacefilling model, alkyne, acetylene, ethyne
18-03-001_T05
Title
Some common alkynes, with up to 6 carbons
Caption
The alkyne series follows the molecular formula pattern, CnH2n-2. Alkynes are all unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Notes
Alkynes are molecules that contain a carbon-carbon triple bond. The remaining C-C bonds can be single bonds. As with the alkanes and alkenes, H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, condensed structural formula, alkyne
18-03-002un
Title
The structure for 2-methyl-2-pentene
Caption
A five-C chain is longest; the base name is pentene. The second C from the right has a methyl alkyl group, and the carbon-carbon double bond is between the second and third carbons. The name is 2-methyl-2-pentene.
Notes
The alkene is numbered according to the location of the double bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the main chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the double bond must be in the main chain, and the main chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the double bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkene, isomer, alkyl, 2-methyl-2-pentene
18-03-003un
Title
The structures for (a) 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene, and (b) 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne
Caption
(a) A six-C chain containing C=C is longest; the base name is hexene. The C=C is between the third and fourth C, giving us 3-hexene. The third and fourth C's from the left each have a methyl alkyl group, so the Greek prefix "di" is used. The full name is 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene. (b) A five-C chain containing the triple bond is longest; the base name is pentyne. The triple bond is between the first and second C, giving us 1-pentyne. The third C has an isopropyl branch, and the fourth C has a methyl alkyl group, so the full name is 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne.
Notes
Alkenes and alkynes are numbered according to the location of the double or triple bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the main chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the multiple bond must be in the main chain, and the main chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double or triple bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the multiple bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, alkene, alkyne, alkyl, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene, 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne
18-03-004un
Title
The structures for 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene, with base chain highlighted
Caption
A six-C chain containing C=C is longest; the base name is hexene. The C=C is between the third and fourth C, giving us 3-hexene. The third and fourth C's from the left each have a methyl alkyl group, so the Greek prefix "di" is used. The full name is 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene.
Notes
Alkenes and alkynes are numbered according to the location of the double or triple bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the main chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the multiple bond must be in the main chain, and the main chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double or triple bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the multiple bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, alkene, alkyl, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene
18-03-005un
Title
The structures for 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene, with methyl branches highlighted
Caption
A six-C chain containing C=C is longest; the base name is hexene. The C=C is between the third and fourth C, giving us 3-hexene. The third and fourth C's from the left each have a methyl alkyl group, so the Greek prefix "di" is used. The full name is 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene.
Notes
Alkenes and alkynes are numbered according to the location of the double or triple bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the main chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the multiple bond must be in the main chain, and the main chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double or triple bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the multiple bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, alkene, alkyl, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexene
18-03-006un
Title
The structure for 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne, with main chain highlighted
Caption
A five-C chain containing the triple bond is longest; the base name is pentyne. The triple bond is between the first and second C, giving us 1-pentyne. The third C has an isopropyl branch, and the fourth C has a methyl alkyl group, so the full name is 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne.
Notes
Alkenes and alkynes are numbered according to the location of the double or triple bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the main chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the multiple bond must be in the main chain, and the main chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double or triple bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the multiple bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, alkyne, alkyl, 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne
18-03-007un
Title
The structure for 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne, with alkyl branches highlighted
Caption
A five-C chain containing the triple bond is longest; the base name is pentyne. The triple bond is between the first and second C, giving us 1-pentyne. The third C has an isopropyl branch, and the fourth C has a methyl alkyl group, so the full name is 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne.
Notes
Alkenes and alkynes are numbered according to the location of the double or triple bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the main chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the multiple bond must be in the main chain, and the main chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double or triple bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the multiple bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, alkyne, alkyl, 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentyne
18-03-008un
Title
The structure for 4,4-dimethyl-2-pentyne
Caption
A five-C chain containing the triple bond is longest; the base name is pentyne. The triple bond is between the second and third C, giving us 2-pentyne. The fourth C has two methyl alkyl groups, so the full name is 4,4-dimethyl-2-pentyne. Note that the base chain (backbone) C's are counted so that the triple bond is at the lower-numbered carbon.
Notes
Alkenes and alkynes are numbered according to the location of the double or triple bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the base chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the multiple bond must be in the base chain, and the base chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double or triple bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the multiple bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, alkyne, alkyl, 4,4-dimethyl-2-pentyne
18-03-009un
Title
The structure for 3-ethyl-4,6-dimethyl-1-heptene
Caption
A seven-C chain containing the double bond is longest; the base name is heptene. The double bond is between the first and second C, giving us 1-heptene. The third C has an ethyl alkyl group, and the fourth and sixth C's each have a methyl group. The full name is 3-ethyl-4,6-dimethyl-1-heptene. Note that the base chain (backbone) C's are counted so that the double bond is at the lower-numbered carbon.
Notes
Alkenes and alkynes are numbered according to the location of the double or triple bond. For example, if the double bond is between the second and third carbons in the base chain, we have a 2-alkene; between the fifth and sixth carbons, a 5-alkene, and so on. Note that the multiple bond must be in the base chain, and the base chain numbering must result in the lowest number for the double or triple bond. Alkyl groups help to determine the names of branched hydrocarbons. As with alkanes, the alkyl group's name forms a prefix to the base name. Unless in conflict with the multiple bond numbering, the alkyl group is numbered by counting from the end of the chain to the carbon on which the alkyl group is attached.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, alkene, alkyl, 3-ethyl-4,6-dimethyl-1-heptene
18-03-010un
Title
A substitution reaction yields chloromethane
Caption
A Cl atom from Cl2 can replace one of the H's in methane to make chloromethane, as shown. Heat or light supplies the energy to break up the octets of CH4 and Cl2, allowing the reaction to occur.
Notes
This reaction is called halogen substitution, and works similarly for other other halogens and other alkanes. Larger alkanes may experience multiple substitution.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, alkane, alkyl, halogen, substitution, methane, chlorine, chloromethane
18-03-011un
Title
A substitution reaction yields chloroethane
Caption
A Cl atom from Cl2 can replace one of the H's in methane to make chloroethane, as shown. Heat or light supplies the energy to break up the octets of C2H6 and Cl2, allowing the reaction to occur.
Notes
This reaction is called halogen substitution, and works similarly for other other halogens and other alkanes. Larger alkanes may experience multiple substitution. In general, an alkane reacts with a halogen, to form an alkyl halide and a hydrogen halide. The form is: R-H + X2 --> R-X + HX
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, alkane, alkyl, halogen, substitution, ethane, chlorine, chloroethane
18-03-012un
Title
An addition reaction yields dichloroethane from ethylene
Caption
The Cl atoms from Cl2 can add across the double bond in ethylene to make dichloroethane, as shown. The double bond breaks, leaving a single bond between the two C's.
Notes
This reaction is called an addition reaction, and works similarly for other other halogens and other alkenes. Alkenes with more than one double bond may experience multiple substitution.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, alkene, alkyl, halogen, addition reaction, ethylene, chlorine, dichloroethane
18-03-013un
Title
Hydrogenation reactions: a special type of addition reaction
Caption
The H atoms from H2 can add across a double bond much liek halogen atoms can. The addition converts an alkene to an alkane, as shown. The double bond breaks, leaving a single bond between the two C's. A catalyst lowers the activation energy.
Notes
This reaction is called a hydrogenation reaction, and is a type of addition reaction. Alkenes with more than one double bond may experience multiple hydrogenation. This reaction is done on unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as vegetable oils, to make the oils solidify at room temperature: saturated fats tend to be solid at higher temperatures than unsaturated fats.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, alkene, alkyl, halogen, addition reaction, ethylene, chlorine, dichloroethane
18-03-015un
Title
Benzene: a hydrocarbon that has resonance sructures
Caption
Benzene has two resonance structures, as shown, but both structures exhibit alternating single and double bonds around the hexagonal carbon "ring". Real benzene has only one structure; measurement shows that all of the C-C bond lengths are equal, and are intermediate between that expected for a single and a double bond.
Notes
Benzene is an important part of many larger organic compounds. However, exposure to benzene itself is hazardous.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic
18-03-016w
Title
Spacefilling model of benzene
Caption
Benzene has a flat structure: all 12 atoms lie in the same plane. The molecule is nonpolar, making benzene soluble in many organic solvents, such as hydrocarbons.
Notes
Benzene is an important part of many larger organic compounds. However, exposure to benzene itself is hazardous.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, spacefilling model
18-03-017un
Title
Ways to represent benzene in structural formulas
Caption
Benzene has a flat structure: all 12 atoms lie in the same plane. The molecule is nonpolar, making benzene soluble in many organic solvents, such as hydrocarbons.
Notes
Benzene is an important part of many larger organic compounds. However, exposure to benzene itself is hazardous.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula
18-03-018un
Title
Hydrogen in benzene can undergo substitution to form other compounds
Caption
One or more of the H's in benzene can be replaced by halogens, alkyl groups, or other entitites (such as -OH) to produce new compounds. In these examples, a -Cl and an -OH has replaced a hydrogen.
Notes
The substitution produces compounds with properties that can be very different from those of unsubstituted benzene.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution
18-03-019un
Title
Monosubstituted benzene
Caption
One or more of the H's in benzene can be replaced by halogens, alkyl groups, or other entitites (such as -OH) to produce new compounds. In these examples, a -Br and an ethyl group has replaced a hydrogen. The compounds are named by using the group's prefix, followed by the name, "benzene". Here, for example, we see bromobenzene and ethylbenzene.
Notes
The substitution produces compounds with properties that can be very different from those of unsubstituted benzene.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, bromobenzene, ethylbenzene
18-03-020un
Title
Examples of monosubstituted benzene compounds
Caption
One or more of the H's in benzene can be replaced by halogens, alkyl groups, or other entitites (such as -OH) to produce new compounds. In these examples, a -CH3, -NH2, -OH, and -CH=CH2 all have replaced a hydrogen. The compounds have special names, perhaps because of their importance: toluene, aniline, phenol, styrene.
Notes
Toluene is found in some kinds of glue, aniline is used to make dyes, phenol disinfects hospitals, and styrene is used to make plastic.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, toluene, aniline, phenol, styrene
18-03-022un
Title
In larger molecules, benzene is thought of as a group
Caption
In these examples, the alkane is the molecule's "backbone", on which the benzene ring is attached. When benzene is a group, it is given the name "phenyl", hence, 3-phenylheptane, and 4-phenyl-1-hexene. The normal naming rules for alkanes and alkenes apply.
Notes
The properties will depend on how large the substituents are.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, 3-phenylheptane, 4-phenyl-1-hexene
18-03-023un
Title
Benzene can be disubstituted
Caption
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order. For 1-chloro-3-ethylbenzene, "chloro" gets the "1" because it is earlier in alphabetical order than "ethyl". Counting from the Cl, the ethyl group is at position "3". For 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, "bromo" is earlier in alphabetical order than "chloro". Counting from the Br, the Cl is at position "2".
Notes
The isomers will have generally similar, but not identical, properties.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, 1-chloro-3-ethylbenzene, 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, isomer
18-03-024un
Title
Disubstituted benzenes use the di- prefix if both substituents are the same.
Caption
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituent, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order.
Notes
The three isomers of dichlorobenzene are distinguished by the numbering. They will have generally similar, but not identical, properties.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, dichlorobenzene, isomer
18-03-025un
Title
Disubstituted benzenes can use the ortho-, meta- or para- di- prefix if both substituents are the same
Caption
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. As an alternative to numbering around the ring, chemists often use ortho-, meta- or para- to denote 1,2; 1,3; or 1,4 disubstitution, respectively.
Notes
The three isomers of dichlorobenzene are distinguished by the numbering. They will have generally similar, but not identical, properties.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, dichlorobenzene, isomer ortho, meta, para
18-03-026un
Title
Example 18.8: 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene
Caption
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order. For 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, "bromo" gets the "1" because it is earlier in alphabetical order than "chloro". Counting from the Br, the chloro group is at position "2".
Notes
The compound has two other isomers. What are they?
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, isomer
18-03-027un
Title
Example 18.8: 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, pointing out bromo and chloro groups
Caption
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order. For 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, "bromo" gets the "1" because it is earlier in alphabetical order than "chloro". Counting from the Br, the chloro group is at position "2".
Notes
The compound has two other isomers. What are they?
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, isomer
18-03-028un
Title
Skillbuilder 18.8: 1,3-dibromobenzene
Caption
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order. Countiing from either Br, the other is at position "3". The name is 1,3-dibromobenzene, or meta-dibromobenzene.
Notes
The compound has two other isomers. What are they?
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, 1,3-dibromobenzene, meta-dibromobenzene, isomer
18-03-031_T06
Title
Seven organic families: examples of functional groups
Caption
By substituting a functional group for a hydrogen on an alkane, we can get a member of an organic family. The compounds within a family show similarities in their physical and chemical properties.
Notes
In the table, the "R" denotes the hydrocarbon group to which the functional group is attached. Other organic families exist, but these are among the most common.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, amine
18-03-032x
Title
Spacefilling models of alcohols: ethanol and 1-butanol
Caption
Alcohols have the general formula, R-OH. Here are two examples.
Notes
Alcohols are named similarly to alkanes. The base chain is the longest chain containing the -OH functional group. The name ends with -ol, and the numbering gives the -OH group the lowest possible number. The number designating the -OH position appears at the front of the base name.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, alcohol, spacefilling model, ethanol, 1-butanol
18-03-033un
Title
Structural formulas of alcohols: 2-pentanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol
Caption
Alcohols have the general formula, R-OH. Here are two examples. For 2-pentanol, the base chain has five C atoms; the -OH is on carbon #2. For 3-methyl-1-butanol, the base chain has four C's. The -OH is on carbon #1; by that numbering, the methyl group is on carbon #3.
Notes
Alcohols are named similarly to alkanes. The base chain is the longest chain containing the -OH functional group. The name ends with -ol, and the numbering gives the -OH group the lowest possible number. The number designating the -OH position appears at the front of the base name.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, alcohol, 2-pentanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, structural formula
18-03-036aa
Title
Spacefilling models of ethers: dimethyl ether, ethyl methyl ether, and diethyl ether.
Caption
Ethers have the general formula, R-O-R. Here are three examples.
Notes
Formal naming rules for ethers are not taught in this text, but common names follow the pattern, (R group 1) (R group 2) ether. If the R-groups are identical, the prefix di- is used.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, alcohol, spacefilling model, dimethyl ether, ethyl methyl ether, diethyl ether
18-03-037un
Title
General formulas of aldehydes and ketones
Caption
Aldehydes and ketones both have a C=O bond. In aldehydes, the C=O bond is found at a terminal carbon atom, but in ketones, the C=O bond is between two alkyl groups.
Notes
Aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group. To name an aldehyde, we identify the longest chain that contains the carbonyl group. We replace the -e in the name of this chain with an -al ending. For example, CH3CH2COH would be propanal. Ketones are also named by identifying the longest chain that contains the carbonyl group. The -e in the name of the chain is replaced by -one, and numbering is used to show where the carbonyl group appears. For example, CH3CH2COCH2CH3 would be 3-pentanone.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, aldehyde, ketone, carbonyl, general formula
18-03-038un
Title
The carbonyl group
Caption
The carbonyl group is the distinguishing feature of aldehydes and ketones. It gives these compounds a measure of polarity.
Notes
Aldehydes and ketones both have a carbonyl group. In aldehydes, the carbonyl group is found at a terminal carbon atom, but in ketones, the carbonyl group is between two alkyl groups.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, aldehyde, ketone, carbonyl, general formula
18-03-039bb
Title
Formaldehyde (methanal): structure, and spacefilling model
Caption
Formaldehyde, also known as methanal, is the simplest aldehyde: the carbonyl group has hydrogen on both sides. It is a gas with a pungent odor, effective as a preservative and disinfectant.
Notes
Formaldehyde is polar, so it dissolves in polar solvents such as water. When dissolved in water, the solution is called formalin, and is used in preparing bodies for burial.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, molecular formula, aldehyde, formaldehyde, methanal
18-03-042un
Title
Structural formulas and spacefilling models of four aldehydes and ketones
Caption
The two upper examples are aldehydes; the two lower are ketones. Note that all have the carbonyl group.
Notes
To name an aldehyde, we identify the longest chain that contains the carbonyl group. We replace the -e in the name of this chain with an -al ending. For example, CH3CH2CH2COH would be butanal. Ketones are also named by identifying the longest chain that contains the carbonyl group. The -e in the name of the chain is replaced by -one, and numbering is used to show where the carbonyl group appears. For example, CH3CH2CH2COCH2CH3 would be 3-hexanone.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, molecular formula, aldehyde, ketone, butanal, pentanal, 2-pentanone, 3-hexanone
18-03-043un
Title
Structural formulas of three aromatic aldehydes
Caption
Aromatic aldehydes sometimes give pleasant aromas to fruits, spices, etc.
Notes
Naming rules for aromatic aldehydes are so complex that many aldehydes, such as the three shown here, are known by common names instead.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, molecular formula, aldehyde, aromatic, cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, vanillin
18-03-048un
Title
Structural formulas of three ketones
Caption
Like aromatic aldehydes, ketones sometimes give pleasant aromas to fruits, spices, etc. 2-heptanone is responsible for the aroma of cloves; carvone gives spearmint its aroma, and ionone gives raspberries their distinctive aroma.
Notes
Large ketones are usually known by their common names.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, molecular formula, ketone, 2-heptanone, carvone, ionone
18-03-049un
Title
General formulas of carboxylic acids and esters
Caption
Carboxylic acids have a -COOH functional group attached to a hydrocarbon group. Esters are similar to carboxylic acids, but the H in the -COOH group is replaced by a hydrocarbon group.
Notes
To name a carboxylic acid, we identify the longest chain that contains the -COOH group. We replace the -e in the name of this chain with an -oic acid ending. For example, CH3CH2COOH would be propanoic acid. To name an ester, begin with the name of the corresponding carboxylic acid, replace the -ic acid ending with the -ate suffix. The name of the hydrocarbon group that replaces the H in the -COOH group precedes the acid name. For example, CH3CH2COOCH3 would be named methyl propanoate.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, carboxylic acid, ester, general formula
18-03-050hh
Title
Structural formulas and spacefilling models of carboxylic acids and esters
Caption
The upper two structures have the -COOH group: these are the carboxylic acids. The lower two examples have the general formula, RCOOR: these are the esters.
Notes
To name a carboxylic acid, we identify the longest chain that contains the -COOH group. We replace the -e in the name of this chain with an -oic acid ending. To name an ester, begin with the name of the corresponding carboxylic acid, replace the -ic acid ending with the -ate suffix. The name of the hydrocarbon group that replaces the H in the -COOH group precedes the acid name.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, carboxylic acid, ester, ethanoic acid, acetic acid, butanoic acid, methyl butanoate, ethyl propanoate
18-03-051un
Title
Structural formulas of propanoic acid and pentanoic acid
Caption
The structures have the -COOH group: these are the carboxylic acids.
Notes
To name a carboxylic acid, we identify the longest chain that contains the -COOH group. We replace the -e in the name of this chain with an -oic acid ending.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, carboxylic acid, propanoic acid, pentanoic acid
18-03-052un
Title
Structural formulas of esters methyl propanoate and ethyl pentanoate
Caption
Both examples have the general formula, RCOOR: these are esters.
Notes
To name an ester, begin with the name of the corresponding carboxylic acid, replace the -ic acid ending with the -ate suffix. The name of the hydrocarbon group that replaces the H in the -COOH group precedes the acid name.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, carboxylic acid, ester, methyl propanoate, ethyl pentanoate
18-03-056un
Title
Structural formulas of common carboxylic acids: formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid
Caption
These carboxylic acids are all common and important substances. Formic (methanoic) acid is one of the substances in ant bites and bee stings that irritates the skin. Lactic acid, found in sour milk, is also produced in muscles after vigorous exercise, and is responsible for muscle soreness. Citric acid contributes to the flavor of citrus fruits, such as lemons, limes, and oranges.
Notes
To name a carboxylic acid, we identify the longest chain that contains the -COOH group. We replace the -e in the name of this chain with an -oic acid ending.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, carboxylic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, methanoic acid
18-03-057un
Title
Structural formulas of esters ethyl butanoate and methyl butanoate
Caption
Both examples have the general formula, RCOOR: these are esters. Ethyl butanoate is responsible for the smell and taste of pineapples. Methyl butanoate gives apples their distinctive smell and taste.
Notes
To name an ester, begin with the name of the corresponding carboxylic acid, replace the -ic acid ending with the -ate suffix. The name of the hydrocarbon group that replaces the H in the -COOH group precedes the acid name.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, carboxylic acid, ester, ethyl butanoate, methyl butanoate
18-03-058ll
Title
Structural formulas and spacefilling models of ethylamine and ethylmethylamine
Caption
The two structures have hydrocarbon groups attached to a nitrogen. Amines are notorious for their bad odors.
Notes
To name an amine, list each hydrocarbon group in alphabetical order, followed by the word "amine". If groups are duplicated, the Greek prefixes, di- or tri- are used, as appropriate.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, ethylamine, ethylmethylamine, amine, nitrogen, ammonia
18-03-060un
Title
Structural formulas of trimethylamine and cadaverine
Caption
The two structures have hydrocarbon groups attached to a nitrogen. Trimethylamine causes the odor of rotten fish, and cadaverine contributes strongly to the odor of rotting flesh.
Notes
To name an amine, list each hydrocarbon group in alphabetical order, followed by the word "amine". If groups are duplicated, the Greek prefixes, di- or tri- are used, as appropriate.
Keywords
functional group, organic, structural formula, trimethylamine, cadaverine, amine, nitrogen, ammonia
18-03-061nn
Title
Polyethylene forms when ethylene monomer reacts
Caption
The double bonds on the monomer molecules open up, leaving a single bond between the two C's in the monomer, and a pair of electrons that can form a single bond with a C in a neighboring monomer. Polyethylene forms when countless monomers repeat this process.
Notes
The polyethylene molecule has the formula, (CH2)n, where n is a huge number - often in the millions.
Keywords
polymer, ethylene, ethene, monomer, alkene, polyethylene
18-03-064pp
Title
Polyvinyl chloride forms when chloroethene monomer reacts
Caption
The double bonds on the monomer molecules open up, leaving a single bond between the two C's in the monomer, and a pair of electrons that can form a single bond with a C in a neighboring monomer. Polyvinyl chloride forms when countless monomers repeat this process.
Notes
The polyvinyl chloride molecule has the formula, (CH2CHCl)n, where n is a huge number - often in the millions.
Keywords
polymer, ethylene, ethene, monomer, alkene, polyvinyl chloride, chloroethene
18-03-067un
Title
Nylon 6,6: A copolymer
Caption
Nylon 6,6 forms when hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid join together, with the elimination of a water molecule. The dimer that forms can then join with other dimers to make the polymer.
Notes
Nylon is an extremely imporant product, used to make cloth, carpet, fishing line, and many other products.
Keywords
polymer, monomer, nylon 6,6, hexamethylenediamine, adipic acid, copolymer, dimer
18-03-068un
Title
Isomers of pentyne: Example 18.10
Caption
Pentyne, C5H8, has three isomers, as represented by these carbon backbones. From top to bottom, the isomers are 1-pentyne, 2-pentyne, and 3-methyl-1-butyne.
Notes
The isomers differ not in the number of atoms, but in the arrangement of the carbon backbone. In all cases, five H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkyne, pentyne, isomer, 1-pentyne, 2-pentyne, 3-methyl-1-butyne
18-03-069un
Title
Isomers of pentyne, showing hydrogens: Example 18.10
Caption
Pentyne, C5H8, has three isomers, as represented by these carbon backbones. From top to bottom, the isomers are 1-pentyne, 2-pentyne, and 3-methyl-1-butyne.
Notes
The isomers differ not in the number of atoms, but in the arrangement of the carbon backbone. In all cases, five H's bond to the carbons to satisfy all carbons' octets.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkyne, pentyne, isomer, 1-pentyne, 2-pentyne, 3-methyl-1-butyne
18-03-070un
Title
Example 18.11: 2,4-dimethylpentane
Caption
In this molecule, the longest chain has five carbons: a pentane. Numbering from either the left or the right, we find methyl groups on carbons #2 and #4. The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated. The name is 2,4-dimethylpentane.
Notes
This compound is an alkane.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, 2,4-dimethylpentane
18-03-071un
Title
Example 18.11: 2,4-dimethylpentane, showing the base chain numbering
Caption
In this molecule, the longest chain has five carbons: a pentane. Numbering from either the left or the right, we find methyl groups on carbons #2 and #4. The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated. The name is 2,4-dimethylpentane.
Notes
This compound is an alkane.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, 2,4-dimethylpentane
18-03-072un
Title
Structural formula of 4-methyl-2-pentyne: Example 18.12
Caption
In this molecule, the longest chain that includes the triple bond has five carbons: a pentyne. Numbering from the right, we find a methyl group on carbon #4. The name is 4-methyl-2-pentyne.
Notes
The molecule is an alkyne.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkyne, pentyne, 4-methyl-2-pentyne.
18-03-073un
Title
Example 18.13: iodobenzene a monosubstituted benzene
Caption
One or more of the H's in benzene can be replaced by halogens, alkyl groups, or other entitites (such as -OH) to produce new compounds. In this example, an -I has replaced a hydrogen. The compound is named by using the group's prefix, followed by the name, "benzene". Here, for example, we see iodobenzene.
Notes
The substitution produces compounds with properties that can be very different from those of unsubstituted benzene.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, iodobenzene
18-03-074un
Title
Example 18.13: 2-phenylhexane
Caption
In this example, the alkane is the molecule's "backbone", on which the benzene ring is attached. When benzene is a group, it is given the name "phenyl", hence, 2-phenylhexane. The normal naming rules for alkanes and alkenes apply, so the phenyl group is located at carbon #2, counting from the left in the hexane chain.
Notes
The properties will depend on how large the substituents are.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, 2-phenylhexane
18-03-075un
Title
Example 18.13: 1-iodo-3-methylbenzene, or 3-iodotoluene
Caption
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order. For 1-iodo-3-methylbenzene, "iodo" gets the "1" because it is earlier in alphabetical order than "methyl". Counting from the I, the methyl group is at position "3".
Notes
Because toluene is a common name for methylbenzene, chemists often think of this compound as a monosubstituted toluene molecule: 3-iodotoluene.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, 1-iodo-3-methylbenzene, 3-iodotoluene, isomer
18-03-076un
Title
Example 18.13: metadiethylbenzene, or m-diethylbenzene
Caption
This benzene molecule contains two -CH2CH3 groups in the meta- position. Because the groups are identical, the Greek prefix di- is used: metadiethylbenzene. Often, chemists abbreviate the "meta" prefix to "m": m-diethylbenzene.
Notes
When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order. For the example shown, the second -CH2CH3 group is at position 3, relative to the first -CH2CH3 group. Because the groups are identical, the Greek prefix di- is used. The name, 1,3-diethylbenzene is also correct.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, disubstituted, metadiethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, isomer
18-03-077un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 45: naming alkanes
Caption
What are the names of the four alkanes shown?
Notes
(a) n-pentane (b) 2-methylbutane (c) 4-ethyl-2-methylhexane (d) 3,3-dimethylpentane The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, n-pentane, 2-methyl-butane, 4-ethyl-2-methyl-hexane, 3,3-dimethylpentane
18-03-078un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 46: naming alkanes
Caption
What are the names of the four alkanes shown?
Notes
(a) n-butane (b) 4-propyloctane (c) 4-ethyl-2-methylhexane (d) 2,2-dimethyl-3,3-dimethylbutane The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, n-butane, 4-propyloctane, 4-ethyl-2-methylhexane, 2,2-dimethyl-3,3-dimethylbutane
18-03-079un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 49: naming alkanes
Caption
What is wrong with the names of each of the four alkanes shown?
Notes
(a) The base chain really has five carbons: n-pentane (b) The base chain really has six carbons, with a methyl group on C#3: 3-methylhexane (c) Methyl shows up twice: use a Greek prefix: 2,3-dimethylpentane
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, n-pentane, 3-methylhexane, 2,3-dimethylpentane
18-03-080un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 50: naming alkanes
Caption
What is wrong with the names of each of the four alkanes shown?
Notes
(a) The base chain really has six carbons: n-hexane (b) The base chain really has eight carbons, with methyl groups on C#3 and C#4: 3,4-dimethyloctane (c) The base chain really has five carbons, with methyl groups on C#2 and C#3: 2,3-dimethylpentane
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkane, n-hexane, 3,4-dimethyloctane, 2,3-dimethylpentane
18-03-081un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 55: naming alkenes
Caption
What are the names of the four alkenes shown?
Notes
(a) 2-pentene (b) 4-methyl-2-pentene (c) 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene (d) 3,4-dimethyl-1-hexene The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkene, 2-pentene, 4-methyl-2-pentene, 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, 3,4-dimethyl-1-hexene
18-03-082un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 56: naming alkenes
Caption
What are the names of the four alkenes shown?
Notes
(a) 1-butene (b) 4-ethyl-2-hexene (c) 3,4-dimethyl-1-pentene (d) 3-isopropyl-1-hexene The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkene, 1-butene, 4-ethyl-2-hexene, 3,4-dimethyl-1-pentene, 3-isopropyl-1-hexene
18-03-083un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 57: naming alkynes
Caption
What are the names of the four alkynes shown?
Notes
(a) 2-butyne (b) 4-methyl-2-pentyne (c) 4,4-dimethyl-2-hexyne (d) 3-ethyl-3-methyl-1-pentyne The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkyne, 2-butyne, 4-methyl-2-pentyne, 4,4-dimethyl-2-hexyne, 3-ethyl-3-methyl-1-pentyne
18-03-084un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 58: naming alkynes
Caption
What are the names of the four alkynes shown?
Notes
(a) 1-pentyne (b) 3-isopropyl-1-hexyne (c) 2,5-dimethyl-3-hexyne (d) 5-ethyl-1,3-heptyne The Greek prefix di- is used when the branch alkyl groups are duplicated.
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alkyne, 1-pentyne, 3-isopropyl-1-hexyne, 2,5-dimethyl-3-hexyne, 5-ethyl-1,3-heptyne
18-03-085un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 71: Ways to represent benzene in structural formulas
Caption
Benzene has a flat structure: all 12 atoms lie in the same plane. Each of the six hydrogen atoms extend radially from the hexagonal carbon ring.
Notes
The hexagon with the circle inside recognizes the existence of two resonance structures in benzene.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula
18-03-086un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 72: Benzene: a hydrocarbon that has resonance sructures
Caption
How do the two resonance structures together represent the true structure of benzene?
Notes
Benzene has two resonance structures, as shown, but both structures exhibit alternating single and double bonds around the hexagonal carbon "ring". Real benzene has only one structure; measurement shows that all of the C-C bond lengths are equal, and are intermediate between that expected for a single and a double bond.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic
18-03-087un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 73: naming monosubstituted benzenes
Caption
What are the names of the three compounds shown?
Notes
(a) fluorobenzene (b) isopropylbenzene (c) ethylbenzene One or more of the H's in benzene can be replaced by halogens, alkyl groups, or other entitites (such as -OH) to produce new compounds. In these examples, one hydrogen has been replaced. The compound is named by using the group's prefix, followed by the name, "benzene".
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, fluorobenzene, isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene
18-03-088un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 74: naming monosubstituted benzenes
Caption
What are the names of the three compounds shown?
Notes
(a) iodobenzene (b) methylbenzene (c) t-butylbenzene One or more of the H's in benzene can be replaced by halogens, alkyl groups, or other entitites (such as -OH) to produce new compounds. In these examples, one hydrogen has been replaced. The compound is named by using the group's prefix, followed by the name, "benzene".
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, iodobenzene, methylbenzene, t-butylbenzene
18-03-089un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 75: naming compounds containing phenyl groups
Caption
What are the names of the three compounds shown?
Notes
(a) 4-phenyloctane (b) 5-phenyl-3-heptene (c) 7-phenyl-2-heptene In these examples, the alkane is the molecule's "backbone", on which the benzene ring is attached. When benzene is a group, it is given the name "phenyl".
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, 4-phenyloctane, 5-phenyl-3-heptene, 7-phenyl-2-heptene
18-03-090un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 76: naming compounds containing phenyl groups
Caption
What are the names of the three compounds shown?
Notes
(a) 3-methyl-4-phenylhexane (b) 2-phenyl-3-octene (c) 4-ethyl-2-phenylheptane In these examples, the alkane is the molecule's "backbone", on which the benzene ring is attached. When benzene is a group, it is given the name "phenyl".
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, 3-methyl-4-phenylhexane, 2-phenyl-3-octene, 4-ethyl-2-phenylheptane
18-03-091un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 77: naming disubstituted benzenes
Caption
What are the names of the three compounds shown?
Notes
(a) 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene (b) 1,2-dimethylbenzene (c) 1,3-difluorobenzene When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, 1-bromo-2-chlorobenzene, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-difluorobenzene
18-03-092un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 78: naming disubstituted benzenes
Caption
What are the names of the three compounds shown?
Notes
(a) 1-chloro-2-fluorobenzene (b) 1-ethyl-4-fluorobenzene (c) 1,4-diiodobenzene When more than one of benzene's hydrogens are substituted, isomers are possible. Therefore, the naming system counts around the hexagonal carbon ring from one of the substituents, to state the position of the other substituent. The lowest number goes to the substituent which is first in alphabetical order.
Keywords
organic, benzene, hydrocarbon, resonance, aromatic, structural formula, substitution, 1-chloro-2-fluorobenzene, 1-ethyl-4-fluorobenzene, 1,4-diiodobenzene
18-03-093un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 81: identifying functional groups
Caption
Match the functional group structure with the name.
Notes
From top to bottom, the names are aldehyde, ketone, ether, amine. Table 18.6 helps here.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, ether, aldehyde, ketone, amine
18-03-094un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 82: identifying functional groups
Caption
Match the functional group structure with the name.
Notes
From top to bottom, the names are ester, carboxylic acid, alcohol, ether. Table 18.6 helps here.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, ester, carboxylic acid, alcohol, ether
18-03-095un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 83: identifying functional groups
Caption
Identify the functional group and determine the family to which the molecule belongs.
Notes
(a) amine (b) aldehyde (c) alcohol (d) ether Table 18.6 helps here.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, alcohol, ether, aldehyde, amine
18-03-096un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 84: identifying functional groups
Caption
Identify the functional group and determine the family to which the molecule belongs.
Notes
(a) ketone (b) ester (c) alcohol (d) carboxylic acid Table 18.6 helps here.
Keywords
organic, family, functional group, alcohol, ketone, ester, carboxylic acid
18-03-097un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 85: naming alcohols
Caption
What are the names of the four alcohols shown?
Notes
(a) 2-butanol (b) 2-methyl-1-propanol (c) 3-ethyl-1-hexanol (d) 3-methyl-3-pentanol
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, alcohol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methyl-3-pentanol
18-03-098un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 89: naming aldehydes and ketones
Caption
What are the names of the four compounds shown?
Notes
(a) butanal (b) 2-pentanone (c) 4-heptanone (d) heptanal
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, aldehyde, ketone, butanal, 2-pentanone, 4-heptanone, heptanal
18-03-099un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 91: naming carboxylic acids and esters
Caption
What are the names of the four compounds shown?
Notes
(a) butanoic acid (b) methyl ethanoate (c) n-propyl propanoate (d) heptanoic acid
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, carboxylic acid, ester, butanoic acid, methyl ethanoate, n-propyl propanoate, heptanoic acid
18-03-100un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 93: naming amines
Caption
What are the names of the four compounds shown?
Notes
(a) triethylamine (b) n-butyl-n-propylamine (c) isopropylamine
Keywords
carbon, organic, covalent, structural formula, molecular formula, amine, triethylamine, n-butyl-n-propylamine, isopropylamine
18-03-101un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 95: Polymers
Caption
What is the structure of the polymer formed from this monomer?
Notes
The double bonds on the monomer molecules open up, leaving a single bond between the two C's in the monomer, and a pair of electrons that can form a single bond with a C in a neighboring monomer. The molecule has the formula, (CH2C(CH3)2)n, where n is a huge number - often in the millions.
Keywords
polymer, monomer, alkene
18-03-102un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 96: Polymers
Caption
What is the structure of the polymer formed from this monomer?
Notes
The double bonds on the monomer molecules open up, leaving a single bond between the two C's in the monomer, and a pair of electrons that can form a single bond with a C in a neighboring monomer. The molecule has the formula, (CF2)n, where n is a huge number - often in the millions.
Keywords
polymer, monomer, alkene, teflon
18-03-103un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 97: Polymers
Caption
What is the structure of the polymer? Where is the ester functional group?
Notes
The dimer forms when terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol join together, with the elimination of a water molecule. The dimer that forms can then join with other dimers to make the polymer. The ester is found at the point where the water molecule was eliminated.
Keywords
polymer, monomer, copolymer, dimer, terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol
18-03-104un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 98: Polymers
Caption
What is the structure of the polymer?
Notes
The dimer forms when carbonic acid and bisphenol A join together, with the elimination of a water molecule. The dimer that forms can then join with other dimers to make the polymer.
Keywords
polymer, monomer, copolymer, dimer, carbonic acid, bisphenol A
18-03-105un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 99: Identify the type of compound
Caption
Identify the type of compound shown as an alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic, alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, or amine.
Notes
(a) alcohol (b) amine (c) alkane (d) carboxylic acid (e) ether (f) alkene
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, functional group, alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic, alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, amine
18-03-106un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 100: Identify the type of compound
Caption
Identify the type of compound shown as an alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic, alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, or amine.
Notes
(a) aromatic (b) alkyne (c) ester (d) ketone (e) aldehyde (f) alcohol
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, functional group, alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic, alcohol, ether, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, amine
18-03-107un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 101: Cumulative problems
Caption
Name each compound.
Notes
(a) 3-methyl-4-t-butylheptane (b) 3-methylbutanal (c) 4-isopropyl-3-methyl-2-heptene (d) propyl butanoate
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, functional group, alkane, alkene, aldehyde, ester, 3-methyl-4-t-butylheptane, 3-methylbutanal, 4-isopropyl-3-methyl-2-heptene, propyl butanoate
18-03-108un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 102: Cumulative problems
Caption
Name each compound.
Notes
(a) 4-ethyl-4,5-dimethyl-2-heptene (b) 1,4-difluorobenzene (c) 2-methylpropanol (d) 5-butyl-3-methylnonane
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, functional group, alkane, alkene, aromatic, alcohol, 4-ethyl-4,5-dimethyl-2-heptene, 1,4-difluorobenzene, 2-methylpropanol, 5-butyl-3-methylnonane
18-03-109un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 103: Cumulative problems
Caption
For each pair, determine if the compounds are isomers.
Notes
(a) the same molecule (b) isomers (c) the same molecule
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, functional group, isomer
18-03-110un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 104: Cumulative problems
Caption
For each pair, determine if the compounds are isomers.
Notes
(a) isomers (b) the same molecule (c) the same molecule
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, functional group, isomer
18-03-111rr
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 107a: Highlight problems
Caption
To what family does the compound belong?
Notes
The compound is an alcohol: it is a hydrocarbon with an -OH group attached.
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, spacefilling model, family, functional group, alcohol
18-03-112ss
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 107b: Highlight problems
Caption
To what family does the compound belong?
Notes
The compound is an amine: it has a nitrogen atom, to which hydrocarbons are bonded.
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, spacefilling model, family, functional group, amine
18-03-113tt
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 107c: Highlight problems
Caption
To what family does the compound belong?
Notes
The compound is a carboxylic acid: it has a -COOH group, to which a hydrocarbon is bonded.
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, spacefilling model, family, functional group, carboxylic acid
18-03-114uu
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 107d: Highlight problems
Caption
To what family does the compound belong?
Notes
The compound is an ester: it follows the RCOOR pattern.
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, spacefilling model, family, functional group, ester
18-03-115vv
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 107e: Highlight problems
Caption
To what family does the compound belong?
Notes
The compound is a an alkane: it consists entirely of carbon and hydrogen, with no double or triple bonds.
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, spacefilling model, family, functional group, alkane
18-03-116ww
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 107f: Highlight problems
Caption
To what family does the compound belong?
Notes
The compound is a an ether: it follows the R-O-R pattern of ethers.
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, spacefilling model, family, functional group, ether
18-03-117un
Title
Chapter 18, Problem 108: Highlight problems
Caption
What functional groups are present in each compound?
Notes
(a) halogenated aromatic and ether (b) alkene and ether (c) halogenated aromatic (d) halogenated aromatic, halogenated alkane
Keywords
carbon, structural formula, functional group, halogen, aromatic, ether, alkane
18-03-118_T07
Title
Table of commercially important polymers
Caption
Some examples of common commercially important polymers. Table 18.7 in the text.
Notes
In each case, "n" is a large number, often in the millions. These polymers are of great interest for their properties: polymers have properties that facilitate their use in a variety of settings, as the table shows.
Keywords
polymer, monomer, copolymer, dimer, condensation
18-03-119un
Title
benzene ring
Caption
Benzene is an important hydrocarbon. It is used as a solvent and in synthesis.
Notes
Benzene has two resonance structures. In the other structure (not shown), the alternating double bonds are between the C's that are single-bonded in the drawing shown.
Keywords
benzene, hydrocarbon, hydrogen, carbon, aromatic, ring

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