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Chapter 6
Chemical Composition

06-00-02un
Title
Multistep solution map to determine the number of nails in a pound of nails
Caption
Factors can relate mass to numbers of items.
Notes
This is an example designed to help students conceptualize the mole.
Keywords
mole
06-02-01un
Title
Solution map for determining the number of He atoms from moles
Caption
The stated factor uses the definition of the mole to make the conversion from moles to number of atoms.
Notes
The factor can be adapted to any conversion of moles to number of atoms, molecules, or ions.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number
06-02-02un
Title
Solution map for converting atoms of Ag to moles
Caption
The stated factor uses the definition of the mole to make the conversion from number of atoms to moles.
Notes
The factor can be adapted to any conversion of a number of atoms, molecules, or ions to moles.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number
06-02-03un
Title
Solution map for converting mass of C (in grams) to moles
Caption
The stated factor uses data from the periodic table to make the conversion from mass to moles.
Notes
The factor can be adapted to any conversion of a mass to moles. The factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-02-04un
Title
Solution map for converting mass of S (in grams) to moles
Caption
The stated factor uses data from the periodic table to make the conversion from mass to moles.
Notes
The factor can be adapted to any conversion of a mass to moles. The factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-02-05un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting mass of C (in grams) to number of C atoms
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and Avogadro's number to make the conversion from mass to number of atoms.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any conversion of a mass to number of atoms. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data, and Avogadro's number is a constant.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-02-07UN
Title
Multistep solution map for converting mass of Al (in grams) to number of Al atoms
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and Avogadro's number to make the conversion from mass to number of atoms.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any conversion of a mass to number of atoms. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data, and Avogadro's number is a constant.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-02-08e
Title
How much is a mole of pennies?
Caption
A mole of pennies would cover the Earth to a depth of 300 meters.
Notes
Students have trouble understanding the magnitude of a mole, probably because atoms and molecules are too small to see. This example is useful to the extent that it illustrates—using a familiar object—how many items are in a mole.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-02-09un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting mass of carbon dioxide (in grams) to number of carbon dioxide molecules
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and Avogadro's number to make the conversion from mass to number of atoms. The mass of CO2 is calculated by adding the masses of carbon and oxygen, according to the chemical formula.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any conversion of a mass to number of atoms. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data, and Avogadro's number is a constant.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-02-10un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting number of nitrogen dioxide molecules to mass of nitrogen dioxide (in grams)
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and Avogadro's number to make the conversion from mass to number of atoms. The mass of one mole of NO2 is calculated by adding the masses of nitrogen and oxygen, according to the chemical formula.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any conversion of a mass to number of atoms. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data, and Avogadro's number is a constant.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-02-13un
Title
Solution map to determine the number of leaves in a clover plant
Caption
Factors can relate the number of a component present in an object to the entire object.
Notes
This is an example designed to help students conceptualize mole-mole conversion factors.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula
06-02-14un
Title
Solution map to convert moles CO2 to moles O
Caption
Factors can relate the moles of an element in a compound to one mole of the compound.
Notes
This is an example of a mole-mole conversion factor. The factor is determined from the formula of carbon dioxide.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula
06-02-15un
Title
Solution map to convert moles CaCO3 to moles O
Caption
Factors can relate the moles of an element in a compound to one mole of the compound.
Notes
This is an example of a mole-mole conversion factor. The factor is determined from the formula of calcium carbonate.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula
06-02-16un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting grams NaCl to grams of Na
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and the formula NaCl to make the conversion from mass of NaCl to mass of Na. The mass of one mole of NaCl is calculated by adding the masses of sodium and chlorine, according to the chemical formula.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any mass-mass conversion. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass
06-03
Title
Chemical formulas provide mole-mole factors
Caption
A formula counts atoms. The counting relationship can be expressed as a mole-mole factor. In this case, 1 mole CCl4 = 4 moles Cl.
Notes
The factor does not express a literal equality, but instead expresses an equality of a single element at a time. Here, for example, 1 mole CCl4 contains chlorine in an amount equal to four moles Cl.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula
06-03-01un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting grams carvone to grams of carbon
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and the formula C10H140 to make the conversion from mass of C10H140 to mass of C. The mass of one mole of C10H140 is calculated by adding the masses of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, according to the chemical formula.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any mass-mass conversion. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass
06-04
Title
Earth showing ozone shield absorbing UV light
Caption
The ozone shield is a layer of air high in the atmosphere that contains ozone, O3. Ozone is an effective absorber of ultraviolet light.
Notes
This example can be used to explore the importance of the property of concentration: if the concentration of ozone in the ozone shield decreases, potentially harmful amounts of UV light could reach the surface of the Earth.
Keywords
ozone, ultraviolet
06-05-01un
Title
Solution map for converting grams Na to grams of NaCl
Caption
The stated factor was originally provided as a percent composition: Sodium chloride is 39% sodium by mass.
Notes
Students could be asked to calculate the percent composition of sodium chloride using data available in the periodic table.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass, percent composition
06-05-03i
Title
Solution map for mass percent of Cl in CCl2F2
Caption
This formula gives the mass percent of chlorine in a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).
Notes
The calculation is an important application of the mole concept.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass, mass percent
06-05-04un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting moles of CCl2F2 to grams of Cl
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and the formula CCl2F2 to make the conversion from moles of CCl2F2 to mass of Cl. The mass of one mole of Cl is obtained directly from the periodic table.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any moles-mass conversion. The moles-to-mass factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass
06-05-05un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting moles of C2Cl4F2 to grams of Cl
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and the formula C2Cl4F2 to make the conversion from moles of C2Cl4F2 to mass of Cl. The mass of one mole of Cl is obtained directly from the periodic table.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any moles-mass conversion. The moles-to-mass factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass
06-05-06j
Title
Chemical formulas and mass percent compositions are interconvertible
Caption
We can calculate an empirical formula from mass percent data. An empirical formula provides the ratio of elements in a compound. The ratio may or may not equal the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
Notes
The text provides an example of the calculation based on hydrogen peroxide, H2O2.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass, empirical formula, mass percent
06-05-07k
Title
The empirical formula may not match the molecular formula
Caption
An empirical formula expresses the ratio of atoms in a compound. The molecular formula will be a whole-number multiple of the empirical formula.
Notes
Empirical formulas can be calculated from experimentally measured mass percent data. An additional experiment (for example, a gas density measurement) would be required to get a molecular formula.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass, empirical formula, molecular formula, mass percent
06-05-08l
Title
Spacefilling model of benzene
Caption
Benzene is a common and important compound with formula C6H6. The empirical formula is CH.
Notes
Example of a compound whose molecular formula differs from its empirical formula.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, empirical formula, molecular formula, spacefilling model, benzene
06-05-09m
Title
Spacefilling model of acetylene
Caption
Acetylene is a common and important compound with formula C2H2. The empirical formula is CH.
Notes
Example of a compound whose molecular formula differs from its empirical formula.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, empirical formula, molecular formula, spacefilling model, acetylene
06-05-10n
Title
Spacefilling model of glucose
Caption
Glucose is a carbohydrate important to sustaining life. It is a compound with formula C6H12O6. The empirical formula is CH2O.
Notes
Example of a compound whose molecular formula differs from its empirical formula.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, empirical formula, molecular formula, spacefilling model, glucose
06-05-11o
Title
Spacefilling model of carbon dioxide
Caption
Carbon dioxide is a common and important compound with formula CO2. The empirical formula and the molecular formula are the same, CO2.
Notes
CO2 is one of many examples of compounds whose empirical formulas and molecular formulas match.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, empirical formula, molecular formula, spacefilling model, carbon dioxide
06-05-12p
Title
Spacefilling model of fructose
Caption
Fructose is a common and important compound with formula C6H12O6. The empirical formula is CH2O.
Notes
Example of a compound whose molecular formula differs from its empirical formula. Chapter 6 of the text details a calculation to determine the molecular formula of fructose.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, empirical formula, molecular formula, spacefilling model, fructose
06-05-13un
Title
Solution map for determining the number of Cu atoms from moles
Caption
The stated factor uses the definition of the mole to make the conversion from moles to number of atoms.
Notes
The factor can be adapted to any conversion of moles to number of atoms, molecules, or ions.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number
06-05-14un
Title
Solution map for converting moles Al to mass of Al (in grams)
Caption
The stated factor uses data from the periodic table to make the conversion from moles to mass.
Notes
The factor can be adapted to any conversion of moles to mass. The factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table, mass
06-05-15un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting mass of Zn (in grams) to number of Zn atoms
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and Avogadro's number to make the conversion from mass to number of atoms.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any conversion of a mass to number of atoms. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data, and Avogadro's number is a constant.
Keywords
mole, Avogadro's number, periodic table
06-05-16un
Title
Solution map to convert moles H2SO4 to moles O
Caption
Factors can relate the moles of an element in a compound to one mole of the compound.
Notes
This is an example of a mole-mole conversion factor. The factor is determined from the formula of sulfuric acid.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula
06-05-17un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting grams Fe2O3 to grams of Fe
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and the formula Fe2O3 to make the conversion from mass of Fe2O3 to mass of Fe. The mass of one mole of Fe2O3 is calculated by adding the masses of iron and oxygen, according to the chemical formula.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any mass-mass conversion. The mass-to-moles factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass
06-05-18un
Title
Solution map for converting grams TiO2 to grams of Ti
Caption
The stated factor was originally provided as a percent composition: Titanium dioxide is 59.9% titanium by mass.
Notes
Students could be asked to calculate the percent composition of titanium dioxide using data available in the periodic table.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass, percent composition
06-05-19un
Title
Multistep solution map for converting moles K2O to grams of K
Caption
The stated factors use data from the periodic table and the formula K2O to make the conversion from moles of K2O to mass of K. The mass of one mole of K is obtained directly from the periodic table.
Notes
The factors can be adapted to any moles-mass conversion. The moles-to-mass factor can be found or calculated from periodic table data.
Keywords
mole, chemical formula, periodic table, mass

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