Glossary

 
 
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A


Absolute cell reference A cell reference that refers to cells by their fixed position in a worksheet; an absolute cell reference remains the same when the formula is copied.
Accounting Number format The Excel number format that applies a thousand comma separator where appropriate, inserts a fixed U.S. dollar sign aligned at the left edge of the cell, applies two decimal places, and leaves a small amount of space at the right edge of the cell to accommodate a parenthesis for negative numbers.
Active cell The cell, surrounded by a black border, ready to receive data or be affected by the next Excel command.
Active window The window in which the mouse pointer movements, commands, or text entry occur when two or more windows are open.
Adaptive A feature where menus adapt to the way you work by displaying the commands you most frequently use.
Address bar Displays the path of the current file or folder; also, in Internet Explorer, displays the address of the active Web page.
Adjacent ranges Cell ranges that are next to each other.
Adjustment handle A handle on a selected object that can be used to drag parts of an object into various positions.
Adware Spyware that tracks a user's Internet browsing and installs malicious cookies.
Aggregate functions Calculations that are performed on a group of records.
Alignment The placement of paragraph text relative to the left and right margins
American Psychological Association (APA) style One of two commonly used styles for formatting research papers.
Anchor A symbol that indicates to which paragraph an object is attached.
AND condition A condition in which only records where both specified values are present in the selected fields.
Animated banner A series of rotating or changing text and images embedded within the Web page.
Animation effects A command that introduces individual slide elements so that the slide can be displayed one element at a time.
Animation effects Effects used to introduce individual slide elements so that the slide can progress one element at a time.
Antispyware software A program that protects a computer from malicious software designed to threaten privacy and confidentiality.
Antivirus software A program that protects a computer from malicious codes such as viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.
Application software Programs with which you accomplish tasks such as word processing, photo editing, or sending email, and use the computer in a productive manner.
Appointment A calendar activity occurring at a specific time and day that does not require inviting other people.
Appointment area A one-day view of the current day's calendar entries.
Archive To back up files and store them somewhere other than the main hard drive.
Arguments The values that an Excel function uses to perform calculations or operations.
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Part of the CPU that performs all the arithmetic and logic functions for the computer; handles addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and also makes logical and comparison decisions.
Arithmetic operator The symbols +,  , *, /, %, and ^ used to denote addition, subtraction (negation), multiplication, division, percentage, and exponentiation in an Excel formula.
Arrow keys The arrow keys found at the bottom center section of the keyboard, used to move the insertion point within the program window.
Ascending order A sorting order that arranges text in alphabetical order (A to Z) or numbers from the lowest to highest number.
Aspect ratio The relationship of an object's height to its width; if locked, changing either the height or width will resize the object proportionally.
Audio port A port that connects audio equipment to the sound card of a computer to facilitate the exchange of data.
Auto fill An Excel feature that extends values into adjacent cells based on the values of selected cells.
AutoComplete (Excel) A feature that speeds your typing and lessens the likelihood of errors; if the first few characters you type in a cell match an existing entry in the column, Excel fills in the remaining characters for you.
AutoComplete (Word) A feature that assists in your typing by suggesting words or phrases.
AutoCorrect (Excel) A feature that assists in your typing by automatically correcting and formatting some text as you type; for example Excel compares your typing to a list of commonly mistyped words and when it finds a match, it substitutes the correct word.
AutoCorrect (Word) A feature that corrects common typing and spelling errors as you type, for example changing teh to the.
AutoFormat As You Type A Word feature that anticipates formatting based on what you type.
AutoNumber An Access feature that sequentially numbers entered records creating a unique number for each record; useful for data that has no distinct field that could be considered unique.
AutoSum Another term for the Sum function.
AutoText A Word feature with which you can create shortcuts to quickly insert long phrases with just a few keystrokes.
AVERAGE function A pre-written formula that adds a group of values and then divides the result by the number of values in the group.
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B

Background style A slide background fill variation that combines theme colors in different intensities.
Backup tape drive A storage device used to save data to tapes resembling audiocassettes.
Banner area The screen area that displays important calendar information including Day, Week, and Month view buttons.
Base The starting point when you divide the amount of increase by it to calculate the rate of increase.
Between. . . And operator A comparison operator that looks for values within a range.
Bibliography A term used to describe a list of referenced works in a report or research paper, also referred to as Works Cited, Sources, or References, depending upon the report style.
Black slide A slide that displays at the end of a slide presentation indicating the end of the slide show.
Blank database A database that has no data and has no database tools; you create the data and the tools as you need them.
Blank form In Outlook, a lined page added to the printout of the Card print style that you can use to manually list new contacts.
Blank Report tool An Access feature with which you can create a report from scratch by adding the fields you want in the order you want them to appear.
Bluetooth Wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances, and often used with mobile devices.
Body font A font that is applied to all slide text except titles.
Boot The process of starting up a computer.
Boot process See Boot.
Bound The term used to describe objects and controls that are based on data that is stored in tables.
Building block Pre-formatted content that you can add to your document, such as cover pages, pull quotes, and letterheads.
Bulleted levels Outline levels identified by a symbol.
Bulleted list A list of items with each item introduced by a symbol such as a small circle or check mark—useful when the items in the list can be displayed in any order.
Bullets Text symbols such as small circles or check marks used to introduce items in a list.
Burn The process of recording data to optical media such as a CD or DVD.
Bus topology A networking configuration in which all devices are connected to a central high-speed cable called the bus or backbone.
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C

Calculated controls Controls whose source of data is an expression—typically a formula—rather than a field.
Card Style In Outlook, a print style which displays the name and address information alphabetically by last name.
Category axis The area along the bottom of a chart that identifies the categories of data; also referred to as the x-axis.
Category labels The labels that display along the bottom of a chart to identify the categories of data; Excel uses the row titles as the category names.
Cathode-ray tube (CRT) A picture tube device used in a monitor, similar to a television.
CD burner An optical storage device capable of reading data from and writing data to a CD.
CD drive A storage device used to read and, possibly, write data to CD.
CD-R Another name for a CD-ROM disc.
CD-ROM The acronym for Compact Disc-Read Only Memory; an optical storage device used to permanently store data and from which you can read and open files.
CD-RW A compact disc that can be reused to read and save files.
Cell (Access) The box formed by the intersection of a row and a column in a datasheet.
Cell (Excel) The small box formed by the intersection of a column and a row.
Cell address Another name for a cell reference.
Cell content Anything typed into a cell.
Cell reference The identification of a specific cell by its intersecting column letter and row number.
Center alignment Text centered between the left and right margin.
Central processing unit (CPU) The part of the computer responsible for controlling all the commands and tasks the computer performs, acting as the brain of the computer.
Chart (Excel) The graphic representation of data in a worksheet; data presented as a chart is usually easier to understand than a table of numbers.
Chart A graphic representation of numeric data.
Chart layout The combination of chart elements that can be displayed in a chart such as a title, legend, labels for the columns, and the table of charted cells.
Chart Layouts gallery A group of predesigned chart layouts that you can apply to an Excel chart.
Chart sheet A workbook sheet that contains only a chart and is useful when you want to view a chart separately from the worksheet data.
Chart style The overall visual look of a chart in terms of its graphic effects, colors, and backgrounds; for example, you can have flat or beveled columns, colors that are solid or transparent, and backgrounds that are dark or light.
Chart Styles gallery A group of predesigned chart styles that you can apply to an Excel chart.
Chart types Various chart formats used in a way that is meaningful to the reader; common examples are column charts, pie charts, and line charts.
Citation A list of information about a reference source, usually including the name of the author, the full title of the work, the year of publication, Web address, and other publication information.
Click To press the left (or primary) mouse button once.
Click and type pointer The text select (I-beam) pointer with various attached shapes that indicate which formatting will be applied when you double-click—such as a left-aligned, centered, or right-aligned.
Client In a client/server network, this is the computer most people interact with to request information from the server and to perform many of the tasks that can be accomplished with a computer.
Client/server network A network consisting of client and server computers; often used in businesses.
Clip art Graphic images included with the Microsoft Office program or obtained from other sources.
Clip art (PowerPoint) Images included with Microsoft Office or downloaded from the Web that can make your presentation more interesting and visually appealing; drawings, movies, sounds, or photographic images that are included with Microsoft Office or downloaded from the Web.
Clipboard A temporary storage area in Windows that stores the most recently copied item.
Clock speed A measurement of how quickly a CPU processes data, an indication of a CPU's processing power.
Close button The button in a title bar that closes a window or a program.
Collapse button A small minus ( ) button to the left of a folder that you click to hide the items in that folder.
Collect and paste The process of collecting a group of graphics or selected text blocks, and then pasting them into a document at any time; the Office Clipboard holds up to 24 items, and the Office Clipboard task pane displays a preview of each item.
Color scales Visual guides that help you understand data distribution and variation.
Column A vertical group of cells in a worksheet.
Column chart A chart in which the data is arranged in columns and which is useful for showing data changes over a period of time or for illustrating comparisons among items.
Column heading The letter that displays at the top of a vertical group of cells in a worksheet; beginning with the first letter of the alphabet, a unique letter or combination of letters identifies each column.
Comma style The Excel number format that inserts thousand comma separators where appropriate, applies two decimal places, and leaves space at the right to accommodate a parenthesis for negative numbers.
Comment A note that can be added to a Word document from the Review tab; comments are not generally printed.
Comments area In Outlook, the area in the lower half of the Appointments form and Task form where you can enter information not otherwise specified in the form.
Common fields Fields that contain the same data in more than one table.
Communication or organizational software A program such as Microsoft Outlook, used to send and retrieve email and manage day-to-day tasks.
Comparison operators Symbols that evaluate each field value to determine if it is the same (=), greater than (>), less than (<), or in between a range of values as specified by the criteria.
Complimentary closing A parting farewell in a business letter.
Compound criteria Multiple conditions in a query or filter.
Compress A process to reduce the size of a file.
Computer A programmable electronic device that can input, process, output, and store data.
Computer fluent The term used to describe a person who understands the capabilities and limitations of computers and knows how to use computer technology to accomplish tasks.
Conditional format A format that changes the appearance of a cell range—for example by adding cell shading or font color—based on a condition; if the condition is true the cell range is formatted based on that condition, and if the condition is false the cell range is not formatted based on the condition.
Connectivity port A port that enables a computer to be connected to other devices or systems, such as networks, modems, and the Internet.
Constant value Numbers, text, dates, or times of day that you type into a cell.
Contact A person or organization about whom you can save information such as street and e-mail addresses, telephone and fax numbers, Web page addresses, birthdays, and even pictures.
Context-sensitive command A command associated with activities in which you are engaged; often activated by right-clicking a screen item.
Contextual tabs Tabs that are added to the Ribbon when a specific object, such as a chart, is selected, and that contain commands relevant to the selected object.
Contextual tools Sets of commands added to the Ribbon when a specific object is selected and which enable you to perform specific commands related to the selected object; contextual tools display only when needed and no longer display after the object is deselected.
Control Objects on a form or report that display data, perform actions, and let you view and work with information.
Control keys Special keys, such as Ctrl, Alt, or Esc, used to increase keyboard functionality or provide shortcuts.
Control layout The grouped arrangement of controls on a form or report.
Control unit The part of the CPU responsible for obtaining instructions from the computer's memory; the control unit interprets the instructions and executes them, thereby coordinating the activities of all the other computer components.
Cookie A small text file containing information that identifies a visitor to a Web site.
Copy A command that duplicates a selection and places it on the Clipboard.
Copyright Laws that protect the rights of authors of original works, including text, art, photographs, and music.
COUNTIF function A statistical function that counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given condition—the criteria that you provide.
CPU See Central processing unit.
Criteria (Access) Conditions that identify the specific records you are looking for.
Criteria (Excel) Conditions that you specify in a logical function.
Crosshair pointer The pointer that indicates that you can draw a shape.
CRT See Cathode-ray tube.
Curly quote A decorative quotation mark, with curved lines instead of the straight lines found in straight quotes.
Custom animation list A list that indicates the animation effect applied to slide items.
Cut (PowerPoint) A command that removes selected text or graphics from your presentation and moves the selection to the Clipboard.
Cut (Word) The command to remove selected text from a document and move it to the Office Clipboard.
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D

Daily Style In Outlook, a print style that prints the appointments for the currently displayed day.
Daily Task List In Outlook, an abbreviated list of current tasks stored in the Tasks folder.
Data Words, numbers, sounds, or pictures that represent facts about people, events, things, or ideas.
Data (Access) Facts about people, events, things, or ideas.
Data (Excel) Text or numbers in a cell.
Data bar A cell format consisting of a shaded bar that provides a visual cue to the reader about the value of a cell relative to other cells; the length of the bar represents the value in the cell—a longer bar represents a higher value and a shorter bar represents a lower value.
Data entry The action of typing the record data into a database.
Data marker A column, bar, area, dot, pie slice, or other symbol in a chart that represents a single data point; related data points form a data series.
Data point A value that originates in a worksheet cell and that is represented in a chart by a data marker.
Data series Related data points represented by data markers; each data series has a unique color or pattern represented in the chart legend.
Data source (Word) A list of variable information, such as names and addresses, that is merged with a main document to create customized form letters or labels.
Data source The table or tables from which a query selects its data.
Data table A range of cells that shows how changing certain values in your formulas affects the results of those formulas, and which makes it easy to calculate multiple versions in one operation.
Data type The characteristic that defines the kind of data that can be entered into a field, such as numbers, text, or dates.
Database An organized collection of facts about people, events, things, or ideas related to a particular topic or purpose.
Database software Programs, such as Microsoft Access, used to store and organize large amounts of data and perform complex tasks such as sorting and querying to generate specialized reports.
Datasheet view The Access view that displays an object organized in a format of columns and rows similar to an Excel spreadsheet.
Date control A control on a form or report that inserts the current date each time the form or report is opened.
Date line The first line in a business letter.
Date Navigator In Outlook, a one-month view of the calendar that you can use to display specific days in a month.
DBMS An acronym for database management system.
Dedicated server A computer that is assigned to handle one specific task on a network.
Denial of service (DoS) An attack caused when a large number of computers attempt to access a Web site at the same time, effectively overloading it and causing it to shut down.
Descending order A sorting order that arranges text in reverse alphabetical (Z to A) order or numbers from the highest to the lowest number.
Deselect The action of canceling a selection.
Design grid The lower pane of the Query window, which displays the design of the query.
Design view The detailed structured view of a form or report, and the view in which some tasks must be performed; only the controls, and not the data, are visible in this view.
Desktop The basic screen from which Windows and programs are run, and which consists of program icons, a taskbar, a Start button, and a mouse pointer.
Desktop computer A class of microcomputer, such as a PC or a Mac.
Detail section The section of a form or report that displays the records from the underlying table or query.
Detail section The section of a form or report that displays the records from the underlying table or query.
Dialog box A box that asks you to make a decision about an individual object or topic.
Dialog Box Launcher A small icon that displays to the right of some group names on the Ribbon, and which opens a related dialog box or task pane providing additional options and commands related to that group.
Digital camera A type of camera that saves photographs in a digital format rather than on film.
Digital Video Interface (DVI) port A port used to connect an LCD monitor to a computer in order to use a pure digital signal.
Digital video recorder A device used to record video in digital format directly to a hard drive, without the need for videotape.
Display screen See Monitor.
Displayed value The data that displays in a cell.
Document Information Panel The area of the screen just below the Ribbon that displays document properties.
Document properties The detailed information about a document that can help you identify or organize your files, including author name, title, and keywords.
Document window The Word window that displays the active document.
Dot leader A series of dots preceding a tab.
Dot matrix An impact printer, useful for printing multipage forms.
Dot pitch The diagonal distance between adjacent pixels, measured in millimeters and that is used to determine image quality for monitors.
Dots per inch (dpi) A measurement of printer resolution.
Double-click The action of clicking the left mouse button twice in rapid succession while keeping the mouse still.
Downloading The action of requesting and copying a file or program from a remote server, such as a Web server, and saving it on your local computer or storage device.
Draft view A simplified view of a document that does not show graphics, margins, headers, or footers.
Drag The action of moving something from one location on the screen to another; the action of dragging includes releasing the mouse button at the desired time or location.
Drag and drop The action of moving a selection by dragging it to a new location.
Drag and drop (Excel) A method of moving or copying the content of selected cells in which you point to the selection and then drag it to a new location.
Drag and drop (Word) A technique by which you can move selected text from one location in a document to another—best used with text that will be moved a short distance, such as on the same screen.
Dragging The technique of holding down the left mouse button and moving over an area of text in order to select it.
Drawing canvas A work area for creating and editing complex figures created using the drawing tools.
Drawing object A graphic object, including shapes, diagrams, lines, and circles.
Drive An area of storage that is formatted with the Windows file system and that has a drive letter such as C.
Dual-boot A system with two different operating systems installed, giving the user the option to boot the computer using either one.
Dual-core A CPU that includes two microprocessors on a single integrated circuit. See also Multicore.
DVD drive A storage device used to read and, possibly, write data to DVD.
DVI port See Digital Video Interface (DVI) port.
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E

E-Mail Account A unique address that you can use to receive and send e-mail.
Edit (Word) The action of making changes to the text or format of a document.
Edit (Excel) The action of making changes in a worksheet or workbook.
Edit mode A Windows mode that enables you to change the name of a file or folder, and works the same in all Windows programs.
Editing (PowerPoint) The process of adding, deleting, or changing the contents of a slide.
Effect options Animation options that include changing the direction of an effect and playing a sound when an animation takes place.
Em dash The word processing name for a long dash in a sentence, and which marks a break in thought, similar to a comma but stronger.
Embedded chart A chart that displays as an object within a worksheet.
Embedded computers Components of larger products, devices that perform pre-defined tasks using specially programmed processors.
Enclosure An additional document included with a letter.
Endnotes In a report or research paper, references placed at the end of the chapter containing the reference.
Enhanced ScreenTip A ScreenTip for a button that has more information than just the name, sometimes including a link to the topic in the Help system.
Entrance effects Animations that bring a slide element onto the screen.
Ethernet port A port, slightly larger than a telephone jack, that can transmit data at speeds up to 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps) and is usually used to connect to a cable modem or a network.
Excel table A series of rows and columns in a worksheet that contains related data, and that is managed independently from the data in other rows and columns in the worksheet.
Expand button A small plus (+) button to the left of a folder that you click to display the items in that folder.
Expand Formula Bar button An Excel window element with which you can increases the height of the Formula Bar for the purpose of displaying lengthy cell content.
Expand horizontal scroll bar button A button with which you can increase the width of the horizontal scroll bar.
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F

Favorites Center An area in Internet Explorer that lets you manage your favorites list, the history list, and the feeds list.
Field A category that describes each piece of data stored in a table.
Field list A list of the field names in a table.
Field properties Characteristics of a field that control how the field will display and how the data can be entered in the field.
File Data that you save and store on a drive, such as a Word document or a PowerPoint presentation.
File extension The characters to the right of the period in a file name, and that tell the computer the program to use to open the file; extensions can be displayed or hidden.
Fill color (Excel) The background color a cell.
Fill color The inside color of text or an object.
Fill handle The small black square in the lower right corner of a selected cell.
Filter By Form An Access command that filters the records in a form based on one or more fields, or based on more than one value in the same field.
Filter By Selection An Access command that retrieves only the records that contain the value in the selected field.
Filtering The process of displaying only a portion of the total records (a subset) based on matching a specific value.
Financial functions Prewritten formulas that perform common business calculations such as calculating a loan payment on a vehicle or calculating how much to save each month to buy something; financial functions commonly involve a period of time such as months or years.
Find and Replace (Excel) A command that searches the cells in a worksheet—or in a selected range—for matches and then replaces each match with a replacement value of your choice.
Firewall See Personal firewall.
FireWire port A port used to send data at rates up to 800 megabits per second (Mbps), frequently used for digital cameras or digital video recorders.
Flash drive A small, portable, digital storage device that connects to a computer's USB port; also called a thumb drive, jump drive, or USB drive.
Flash memory Portable, nonvolatile memory, that uses electronic, solid-state circuitry.
Flat panel See Liquid crystal display.
Flat screen A type of screen used in CRT monitors, and which differs from flat panel monitors.
Floating object An object or graphic that can be moved independently of the surrounding text.
Floppy disk drive (or floppy drive) The original storage device for a microcomputer, which enables portable, permanent storage on floppy disks.
Folder A storage area, represented on the screen by a picture of a paper file folder, used to store files or other folders.
Font A set of characters with the same design and shape.
Font size The size of characters in a font measured in points; there are 72 points in an inch, with 10 or 11 points being a typical font size.
Font style Formatting emphasis such as bold, italic, and underline.
Font theme A theme that determines the font applied to two types of slide text—headings and body.
Footer (PowerPoint) Text that displays at the bottom of every slide or that prints at the bottom of a sheet of slide handouts or notes pages.
Footer (Word) A reserved area for text and graphics that displays at the bottom of each page in a document or section of a document.
Footers (Excel) Text, graphics, or page numbers that print at the bottom of every page of a worksheet.
Footnotes In a report or research paper, references placed at the bottom of a report page containing the source of the reference.
Foreign key The field that is included in the related table so that it can be joined to the primary key in another table for the purpose of creating a relationship.
Form A window for displaying and collecting information.
Form (Access) An Access object with which you can enter new records into a table, edit existing records in a table, or display existing records from a table.
Form footer Information at the bottom of the screen in Form view that is printed after the last detail section on the last page.
Form header Information, such as a form's title, which displays at the top of the screen in Form view, and that is printed at the top of the first page when records are printed as forms
Form tool The Access tool that creates a form with a single mouse click, and that includes all the fields from the underlying data source (table or query).
Format as you type The Excel feature by which a cell takes on the formatting of the number typed into the cell.
Format Painter (Excel) An Excel feature with which you can copy the formatting of a specific cell to other cells.
Format Painter (PowerPoint) A feature that copies formatting from one selection of text to another, thus ensuring formatting consistency in your presentation.
Format Painter (Word) A Word tool with which you can copy the formatting of specific text, or of a paragraph, to text in another location in the document.
Formatting (Excel) The process of specifying the appearance of cells and the overall layout of a worksheet; accomplished through various commands on the Ribbon, many of which are also available using shortcut menus or keyboard shortcuts.
Formatting (PowerPoint) Changing the appearance of the text, layout, and design of a slide.
Formatting marks Characters that display on the screen, but do not print, indicating where the Enter key, the Spacebar, and the Tab key were pressed; also called nonprinting characters.
Formatting text The process of establishing the overall appearance of text in a document.
Formula An equation that performs mathematical calculations on values in a worksheet.
Formula AutoComplete An Excel feature which, after typing an = (equal sign) and the beginning letter or letters of a function name, displays a list of function names that match the typed letter(s), and from which you can insert the function by pointing to its name and pressing the Tab key or double-clicking.
Formula Bar An element in the Excel window that displays the value or formula contained in the active cell; here you can also enter or edit values or formulas.
Frames Separate areas of content placed closely together so they will display as one unified Web page with or without any visible demarcation lines between them.
Freeze Panes A command that enables you to select one or more rows or columns and freeze (lock) them into place; the locked rows and columns become separate panes.
Full Screen Reading view A view that displays easy-to read pages that fit on the screen.
Function A predefined formula—a formula that Excel has already built for you—that performs calculations by using specific values in a particular order.
Function key The keys, numbered F1 through F12, located above the numeric keys on a keyboard that have different functions depending upon the software program in use.
Future value The value at the end of time periods in an Excel function; the cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made—usually zero for loans.
Fv The abbreviation for future value in various Excel functions.
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G

Gallery An Office 2007 feature that displays a list of potential results; it shows the results of commands rather than just the command name.
General format The default format that Excel applies to numbers; the general format has no specific characteristics— whatever you type in the cell will display, with the exception that trailing zeros to the right of a decimal point will not display.
Gigabyte (GB) Approximately one billion bytes; a unit of measure for memory and storage space.
Gigahertz (GHz) One billion hertz; hertz is the unit of measure for processor speed.
Goal Seek One of Excel's What-If Analysis tools that provides a method to find a specific value for a cell by adjusting the value of one other cell.
Gradient fill A color combination in which one color fades into another.
Graphic A picture, clip art image, chart, or drawing object.
Graphical user interface (GUI) A computer interface with which you interact with the computer through the use of graphics and point-and-click technology; GUIs show documents as they will look in their final form.
Group A set of command buttons related to the Ribbon tab that is currently selected.
Group footer Displays the field label by which the summarized data has been grouped.
Group header Information printed at the beginning of each new group of records, for example the group name.
Group, Sort, and Total pane A pane that opens at the bottom of your screen in which you can control how information is sorted and grouped in a report; provides the most flexibility for adding or modifying groups, sort orders, or totals options on a report.
GUI See Graphical user interface.
Guides Vertical and horizontal lines that display in the rulers to give you a visual indication of where the crosshair pointer is positioned so that you can draw a shape.
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H

Handheld computers See Personal digital assistant.
Hanging indent An indent style in which the first line of a paragraph extends to the left of the remaining lines, and that is commonly used for bibliographic entries.
Hard copy Data or information retrieved from a computer and printed.
Hard drive A large disk drive inside your computer, also referred to as a Local Disk.
Hardware The physical components of the computer and any equipment connected to it.
Header (PowerPoint) Text that displays at the top of every slide or that prints at the top of a sheet of slide handouts or notes pages.
Header (Word) A reserved area for text and graphics that displays at the top of each page in a document or section of a document.
Headers (Excel) Text, graphics, or page numbers that print at the top of every page of a worksheet.
Headings font The font that is applied to slide titles.
Help button A button at the far right of the Ribbon tabs that you click to display the program's Help window.
History A feature of Internet Explorer that tracks recently visited Web pages and sites.
Home page The Web page that displays every time you start Internet Explorer.
Horizontal scroll bar The bar at the bottom of a window that enables you to move left and right to view information that extends beyond the left and right edges of the screen.
Horizontal window split box A small box with which you can split the document into two horizontal views of the same document.
Hyperlink Text that you click to go to another location in a document, another document, or a Web site; the text is a different color (usually blue) than the surrounding text, and commonly underlined.
Hyperlinks Text, buttons, pictures, or other objects displayed on Web pages that, when clicked, access other Web pages or display other sections of the active page.
Hyperthreading Technology that allows a CPU to emulate multiple processors, improving processing power and speed.
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I

Icon A graphic representation of an object that you can click to open that object.
Icon set A collection of icons such as arrows, flags, bars, or circles that annotate and classify data into three to five categories separated by a threshold value.
IF function A logical function that uses a logical test to check whether a condition is met, and then returns one value if true, and another value if false.
Impact A type of printer that resembles a typewriter; a key and ink ribbon are used to imprint a character on paper.
Inbox In Outlook, the folder that stores e-mail.
Indenting A format for text in which lines of text are moved relative to the left and right margins, for example, moving the beginning of the first line of a paragraph to the right or left of the rest of the paragraph.
Information Data that has been organized in a useful manner.
Information processing cycle The cycle composed of the four basic computer functions: input, process, output, and storage.
Ink-jet Type of printer that uses a special nozzle and ink cartridges to distribute liquid ink on the surface of the paper.
Inline object An object or graphic inserted in a document that acts like a character in a sentence.
Innermost sort field When sorting on multiple fields in datasheet view, the field that will be used for the second level of sorting.
Input The act of entering data into a computer.
Input devices Computer hardware used to enter data and instructions into a computer; examples include the keyboard, mouse, stylus, scanner, microphone, and digital camera.
Insert mode The mode in which text moves to the right to make space for new keystrokes.
Insert Worksheet button Located on the row of sheet tabs, a sheet tab that, when clicked, inserts an additional worksheet into the workbook.
Insertion point A blinking vertical line that indicates where text or graphics will be inserted.
Inside address The address block under the date in a business letter.
Interest The amount charged for the use of borrowed money.
Internet control key Usually found at the top of a keyboard, this type of key can be used for various Internet-related activities including opening a Web browser and sending email.
Internet Explorer 7.0 A software program that allows you to view the contents of the World Wide Web.
Internet Service Provider (ISP) A company that provides an Internet connection through a regular telephone line, a special high-speed telephone line, or a cable.
IrDA port A port enabling data transmission through the use of infrared light waves; the devices sharing data require a clear line of site with no visual obstructions.
Is Not Null A criteria that searches for fields that are not empty.
Is Null A criteria that searches for fields that are empty.
Items An element of information in Outlook, such as a message, a contact name, a task, or an appointment.
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J

Join line In the Relationships window, the line joining two tables that visually indicates the related field and the type of relationship.
Joysticks Input devices used to control actions and movement within computer games.
Justified alignment Text aligned on both the left and right margins.
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K

Key logger A software program or hardware device that records every keystroke made on the computer.
Keyboard The hardware device used to input typed data and commands into a computer.
Keyboard shortcut A combination of keys on the keyboard that perform a command.
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L

Label control A control on a form or report that contains descriptive information, typically a field name.
LAN See Local area network.
Landscape orientation A page orientation in which the printed page is wider than it is tall.
Laser A type of printer that uses a drum, static electricity, and a laser to distribute dry ink or toner on the surface of the paper.
Layout (PowerPoint) The placement and arrangement of the text and graphic elements on a slide.
Layout selector A small symbol that displays in the upper left corner of a selected control layout, and with which you can move the entire group of controls.
Layout view The Access view in which you can make changes to a form or to a report while the form is running— the data from the underlying record source displays.
LCD See Liquid crystal display.
Leader characters Characters that form a solid, dotted, or dashed line that fills the space preceding a tab stop.
Left aligned The cell format in which characters align at the left edge of the cell; this is the default for text entries and is an example of formatting information stored in a cell.
Left alignment Text aligned at the left margin, leaving the right margin uneven.
Left pane In the My Computer window, a pane at the left that displays information and commonly used tools.
Legend A chart element that identifies the patterns or colors that are assigned to the categories in the chart.
Line chart A chart type that displays trends over time; time displays along the bottom axis and the data point values are connected with a line.
Line spacing The distance between lines of text in a paragraph.
Link Select pointer The mouse pointer displaying as a pointing hand as you point to an item that links to another Web page.
Linux An open-source operating system based on the UNIX operating system developed for mainframe computers.
Liquid crystal display (LCD) Technology used in flat panel monitors, resulting in thinner and lighter monitors.
Live Preview A technology that shows the result of applying an editing or formatting change as you move your pointer over the results presented in a gallery.
Local area network (LAN) A network in which the nodes are located within a small geographic area.
Local Disk A large disk drive inside your computer, also referred to as a hard disk.
Logical functions Pre-written formulas that test for specific conditions, and which typically use conditional tests to determine whether specified conditions, referred to as criteria, are true or false.
Logical operators (Access) The criteria of AND and OR used to enter criteria for the same field or different fields; AND requires that both conditions be met and OR requires that either condition be met.
Logical test Any value or expression that can be evaluated as being true or false.
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M

Mac OS The operating system designed specifically for Apple's Mac computers.
Magnetic A type of storage process using magnetized film to store data; used by media such as floppy disks or Zip disks.
Mail merge A Word feature that joins a main document and a data source to create customized letters or labels.
Main document The document that contains the text or formatting that remains constant in a mail merge.
Mainframe A large computer capable of performing more than one task at the same time and supporting many users simultaneously.
Manual column break An artificial end to a column to balance columns or to provide space for the insertion of other objects.
Manual line break The action of ending a line, before the normal end of the line, without creating a new paragraph; this is useful, for example, if your paragraph style includes space before or after paragraphs and you want to begin a new line without the space.
Margins The space between the text and the top, bottom, left, and right edges of the paper.
MAX function A statistical function that determines the largest value in a group of values.
Maximize To increase the size of a window to fill the screen.
MEDIAN function A statistical function commonly used to describe a group of data, and which finds the middle value in a group of values that has as many values above it in the group as are below it.
Megabyte (MB) Approximately one million bytes; a unit of measure for memory and storage space.
Megahertz (MHz) One million hertz; hertz is the unit of measure for processor speed.
Memo Style In Outlook, a print style that prints a single item on a single page and provides detailed information about that item.
Menu A list of commands within a category.
Menu bar The bar beneath the title bar that lists the names of menu categories.
Message Bar The area directly below the Ribbon that displays information such as security alerts when there is potentially unsafe, active content in an Office 2007 document that you open.
Message header In Outlook, the basic information about an e-mail message such as the sender's name, the date sent, and the subject.
MFD See Multifunction device.
Microcomputer The computer most users are familiar with, ranging in size from large desktop systems to handheld devices.
Microphones Input devices used to digitally record sound.
Microprocessor chip See Central processing unit.
Microsoft Exchange Server An e-mail based communications server for businesses and organizations.
Microsoft Windows The operating system found on most microcomputers.
MIDI port Musical Instrument Digital Interface port used to connect electronic musical instruments to a system.
MIN function A statistical function that determines the smallest value in a group of values.
Mini toolbar A small toolbar containing frequently used formatting commands, and sometimes accompanied by a shortcut menu of other frequently used commands, which displays as a result of right-clicking a selection or of selecting text.
Mini toolbar (Excel) A small toolbar containing frequently used formatting commands and which displays as a result of right-clicking or selecting cells; the toolbar fades when you move the mouse away and dismisses itself when you click outside of the toolbar.
Minimize Removing the window from the screen without closing it; minimized windows can be reopened by clicking the associated button in the taskbar.
Mobile devices Lightweight, portable computing devices such as PDAs, smartphones, and handheld computers.
Modem port A port that connects to a standard telephone line, usually used to connect to the Internet or a local network, with a maximum speed of 56 kilobits per second (Kbps).
Modern Language Association (MLA) style One of two commonly used styles for formatting research papers.
Monitor (or display screen) A common output device that displays text, graphics, and video.
Monitor port A port used to connect a monitor to a computer's graphic processing unit, located on the motherboard or video card.
Motherboard A large printed circuit board located in the system unit to which all other boards are connected; the motherboard contains the central processing unit (CPU), the memory (RAM) chips, and expansion card slots.
Mouse An input device used to enter commands and user responses into a computer.
Mouse pointer The arrow, I-beam, or other symbol that shows the location or position of the mouse on your screen; also called the pointer.
Multicore A CPU that includes more than two microprocessors on a single integrated circuit. See also Dual-core.
Multifunction device (MFD) A device that has more than one purpose, often combining input and output capabilities.
Multimedia control key Usually found at the top of a keyboard, this type of key can be used to control or mute speaker volume.
Multimedia projectors Output devices used to display information on a screen for viewing by an audience.
Multiple items form A form in which multiple records can be entered into or displayed from a table.
Multitask The action of performing more than one task at the same time.
My Computer A window that gives you access to the files and folders on your computer.
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N

Name Box An element of the Excel window that displays the name of the selected cell, table, chart, or object.
Navigate To move within a document or workbook.
Navigation Pane (Access) The area of the Access window that displays and organizes the names of the objects in a database; from here you open objects for use.
Navigation Pane (Outlook) The area on the left side of the Outlook window that provides quick access to Outlook's components.
Network A group of two or more computers (or nodes) connected to share information and resources.
Network topology The layout and structure of a computer network.
Node Any object connected to a network—may be a computer or a peripheral device.
Non-breaking hyphen A special type of hyphen that will not break at the end of a line and is useful for telephone numbers in which you normally do not want the number to be placed on two separate lines by the word wrap feature.
Non-breaking space A special type of space inserted between two words that results in treating the two words as one, and thus forcing both words to wrap even if the second word would normally wrap to the next line.
Nonadjacent ranges Cell ranges that are not next to each other.
Nonimpact A type of printer that does not actually touch the paper.
Nonprinting characters Characters that display on the screen, but do not print, indicating where the Enter key, the Spacebar, and the Tab key were pressed; also called formatting marks.
Nonvolatile Permanent storage, as in read only memory (ROM); data remains even when power is shut down.
Normal view (PowerPoint) The view in which the PowerPoint window is divided into three areas: the Slides/Outline pane, the Slide pane, and the Notes pane.
Normal view (Excel) A screen view that maximizes the number of cells visible on your screen and keeps the column letters and row numbers close to the columns and rows.
Notebook computer Also known as a laptop, this microcomputer is smaller than a desktop and designed to be portable.
Notes area In Outlook, a blank area of the Contact form that can be used for any information about the contact that is not otherwise specified in the form.
Notes pages Printouts that contain the slide image in the top half of the page and speaker's notes in the lower half of the page.
Notification area The area on the right side of the taskbar that keeps you informed about processes that are occurring in the background, such as antivirus software, network connections, and other utility programs; also displays the time.
NOW function A function within the Date & Time category that retrieves the date and time from your computer's calendar and clock and inserts the information into the selected cell.
Nper The abbreviation for number of time periods in various Excel functions.
Number format A specific way in which Excel displays numbers in a cell.
Numbered lists A list of items with each item introduced by a consecutive number to indicate definite steps, a sequence of actions, or chronological order.
Numeric keypad A bank of keys on a keyboard with which you can input numbers, it is located on the right side of a keyboard and is similar to an adding machine or calculator.
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O

Object window The portion of the Access window that displays open objects.
Objects The basic parts of a database, which includes tables, forms, queries, reports, and macros.
Office button The large button to the left of the Quick Access Toolbar that displays a list of commands related to things you can do with a workbook, such as opening, saving, printing, or sharing.
Office Clipboard A temporary storage area maintained by your Microsoft Office program.
Office Clipboard (Word) A temporary storage area that holds text or graphics that has been cut or copied, and that can subsequently be placed in another location in the document or in another Office program.
Offline Your status when you are not connected to a network or to the public Internet.
OLE An abbreviation for object linking and embedding, a technology for transferring and sharing information among applications.
One-to-many relationship A relationship between two tables where one record in the first table corresponds to many records in the second table—the most common type of relationship in Access.
One-variable data table A data table that changes the value in only one cell.
Online Your status when you are connected to your organization's network or to the public Internet.
Open-source Software whose code is made available for developers to modify and use as they wish, usually available at no cost.
Operating system A set of instructions that coordinates the activities of your computer; Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system.
Operating system (OS) System software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals, and software; Microsoft Windows XP is an operating system.
Operators The symbols with which you can specify the type of calculation you want to perform in an Excel formula.
Optical A type of storage process using a laser to read and write data; used by media such as CDs and DVDs.
OR condition A condition in which only records where one of two values is present in the selected field.
Order of operations The mathematical rules for performing multiple calculations within a formula.
OS See Operating system.
Outermost sort field When sorting on multiple fields in datasheet view, the field that will be used for the first level of sorting.
Outline view A document view that shows headings and subheadings, which can be expanded or collapsed.
Outlook Today In Outlook, a summary view of your schedule, tasks, and e-mail for the current day.
Output To retrieve data or information from a computer.
Output devices Computer hardware used to retrieve processed data and information from a computer; examples include the monitor, printer, and speakers.
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P

P2P network See Peer-to-peer network.
Page footer Information printed at the end of every page in a report; used to print page numbers or other information that you want to appear at the bottom of every report page.
Page header (Access) Information printed at the top of every page of a report.
Page Layout view A screen view in which you can use the rulers to measure the width and height of data, set margins for printing, hide or display the numbered row headings and the lettered column headings, and change the page orientation; this view is useful for preparing your worksheet for printing.
Page number control A control on a form or report that inserts the page numbers of the pages when displayed in Print Preview or when printed.
Page orientation (Excel) The position of your printed worksheet on paper—either portrait or landscape.
Paint A Windows program in which graphics are created or edited.
Pane A portion of a worksheet window bounded by and separated from other portions by vertical and horizontal bars.
Parallel port A port used to connect a printer to a computer, and which sends data in groups of bits at speeds of up to 500 kilobits per second (Kbps).
Parenthetical reference In the MLA report style, references placed in parenthesis within the report text that include the last name of the author or authors, and the page number in the referenced source.
Paste The action of placing text or objects that have been copied or moved from one location to another location.
Paste (Excel) The action of placing cell contents that have been copied or moved to the Office Clipboard to another location.
Paste area The target destination for data that has been cut or copied using the Office Clipboard.
Paste Options button (Excel) A button that displays in the lower right corner of a pasted selection and that displays a list of options that lets you determine how the information is pasted into your worksheet; the list varies depending on the type of content you are pasting and the program you are pasting from.
Paste Special A dialog box that offers various options for the manner in which you can paste the contents of the Office Clipboard into one or more cells; for example, you can paste the calculated result of a formula rather than the actual formula.
PDA See Personal digital assistant.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) network A network in which each node can communicate directly with every other node, and which is often used for home and small business networks.
Percent for new value = base percent + percent of
increase The formula for calculating a percentage by which a value increases by adding the base percentage— usually 100%—to the percent increase.
Percent rate of increase The percent by which one number increases over another.
Peripheral A hardware device connected to a computer, but not located within the system unit, such as a monitor, printer, or mouse.
Permanent memory Memory used by storage devices to retain data and information.
Personal digital assistant (PDA) Also known as a handheld computer, a small device that enables a user to carry digital information.
Personal firewall A software program or hardware device designed to prevent unauthorized access to a computer.
Personal information manager In Outlook, a feature that enables you to electronically store and manage information about contacts, appointments, and tasks.
Phishing Email that masquerades as an authentic entity such as a bank or credit card company, requesting confidential information.
Picture element A point of light measured in dots per square inch on a screen; sixty-four pixels equals 8.43 characters, which is the average number of digits that will fit in a cell using the default font.
Pie chart A type of chart that shows the relationship of each part to a whole.
Pixel An abbreviated name for picture element.
Placeholder A slide element that reserves a portion of a slide and serves as a container for text, graphics, and other slide elements.
PMT function An Excel function that calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and at a constant rate of interest.
Point (noun) A measurement of the size of a font; there are 72 points in an inch, with 10–12 points being the most commonly used font size.
Point (verb) The action of moving the mouse pointer over something on the screen.
Point and click method The technique of constructing a formula by pointing to and then clicking cells; this method is convenient when the referenced cells are not adjacent to one another.
Pointer See mouse pointer.
Pointing Positioning the tip of the pointer in the center of an icon or other screen object.
Pop-up blocker A command on the Tools menu that stops or allows pop-ups to display as you browse the Internet.
Pop-ups Small windows that display on your screen without you actually requesting them as your browse the Internet.
Populate The action of filling a database table with records.
Port An interface through which external devices are connected to the computer.
Portals Home pages that act as launching sites to other Web pages, for example containing links to access frequently visited sites, up-to-the-minute news, weather reports, and maps and directories.
Portrait orientation A page orientation in which the printed page is taller than it is wide.
Present value The total amount that a series of future payments is worth now; also known as the principal.
Presentation graphics software A program used to effectively present information to an audience.
Presentation software A program used to create dynamic slideshows and generate speaker notes and audience handouts.
Primary key The field that uniquely identifies a record in a table—for example, a Student ID number at a college.
Principal Another term for present value.
Print Layout view A view of a document that looks like a sheet of paper, and which displays margins, headers, footers, and graphics.
Print Preview A feature that displays information as it will print based on the options that you select.
Print styles A combination of paper and page settings that determines the way items print.
Printer An output device used to generate hard copy.
Process The term used to describe the action of a computer when it converts data into information.
Program A set of instructions used by a computer to perform certain tasks.
Program tab A tab on the Ribbon that replaces the standard set of tabs when you switch to certain authoring modes or views, such as Print Preview.
Program-level buttons Buttons at the far right of the title bar that minimize, restore, or close the program.
Property sheet A list of characteristics—properties —for controls on a form or report in which you can make precision changes to each property associated with the control.
Protocol A set of rules for transferring data over the Internet.
Pt. An abbreviation for point.
Pv The abbreviation for present value in various Excel functions.
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Q

Query A database object that retrieves specific data from one or more tables and then displays the specified data in datasheet view.
Quick Access Toolbar A small toolbar in the upper left corner of the program window that displays buttons to perform frequently used commands with a single click.
Quick Launch toolbar An area to the right of the Start button that contains shortcut icons for commonly used programs.
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R

RAM See Random access memory.
Random Access Memory (RAM) A computer's temporary storage space or short-term memory and stored on chips located on the motherboard; measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB).
Range Two or more selected cells on a worksheet that are adjacent or nonadjacent; because the range is treated as a single unit, you can make the same change, or combination of changes, to more than one cell at a time.
Range finder An Excel feature that outlines cells in color to indicate which cells are used in a formula; useful for verifying which cells are referenced in a formula or for quickly positioning the insertion point within the cell to perform editing directly in the cell.
Rate In the Excel PMT function, the term used to indicate the interest rate for a loan.
Rate = amount of increase/base The mathematical formula to calculate a rate of increase.
RE Commonly used to mean in regard to or regarding.
Read Only Memory (ROM) A set of memory chips located on the motherboard that stores data and instructions that cannot be changed or erased; it holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up.
Reading Pane In Outlook, a window in which you can preview an e-mail message without actually opening it.
Recognizer A purple dotted underscore beneath a date or address indicating that the information could be placed into another Microsoft Office application program such as Outlook.
Record All of the categories of data pertaining to one person, place, thing, event, or idea.
Record selector The bar on the left side of a form with which you can select the entire record.
Record selector box The small box at the left of a record in datasheet view which, when clicked, selects the entire record.
Record source The tables or queries that provide the underlying data for a report.
Recycle Bin A storage area for files that have been deleted; files can be recovered from the Recycle Bin or permanently removed.
References Within a report or research paper, a notation to indicate information that has been taken from another source; also in APA style, the title on the page that lists the sources used in the document.
Referential integrity A set of rules that Access uses to ensure that the data between related tables is valid.
Refresh rate The speed at which the pixels are reilluminated, measured in cycles per second and expressed as hertz (Hz).
Relational database A type of database in which the tables in the database can relate or connect to other tables through common fields.
Relationship An association that is established between two tables using common fields.
Relative cell reference In a formula, the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to.
Reminder A small dialog box that displays in the middle of the Outlook screen that is used to remind you of a pending appointment or task.
Report A database object that summarizes the fields and records from a table, or from a query, in an easy-to read format suitable for printing.
Report footer Information printed once at the end of a report; use to print report totals or other summary information for the entire report.
Report header Information printed once at the beginning of a report; used for logos, titles, and dates.
Report tool The Access feature that creates a report with one mouse click, and which displays all the fields and records from the record source that you choose—a quick way to look at the underlying data.
Report Wizard An Access feature with which you can create a report by answering a series of questions; Access designs the report based on your answers.
Resolution The measurement used to assess the clarity of an image on a monitor; determined by pixel density.
Restore Using the Restore Down button to return a window to the size it was before it was maximized.
Restore point A record created by Windows XP for all of a computer's system settings.
Ribbon (Outlook) The area along the top of an Outlook form that contains frequently needed commands.
Ribbon The user interface in Office 2007 that groups the commands for performing related tasks on tabs across the upper portion of the program window.
Rich Text Format A universal document format that can be read by nearly all word processing programs, and that retains most text and paragraph formatting.
Right alignment Text aligned on the right margin, leaving the left margin uneven.
Right-click The action of clicking the right mouse button.
Ring (or token-ring) topology A networking configuration in which all devices are set up in a circular layout; data flows in a circular fashion, in one direction only.
ROM See Read only memory.
Root folder The first folder from which all other folders branch.
Rotate handle A handle on a selected image that can be dragged to rotate the image to any angle.
Rounding A procedure in which you determine which digit at the right of the number will be the last digit displayed and then increase it by one if the next digit to its right is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
Row A horizontal group of cells in a worksheet.
Row headings The numbers along the left side of an Excel worksheet that designate the row numbers.
Ruler (Word) Displays the location of paragraph margins, indents, and tab stops for the selected paragraph.
Run The process in which Access searches the records in the table(s) included in a query design, finds the records that match the specified criteria, and then displays those records in a datasheet; only the fields that have been included in the query design display.
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S

S-video port A port used to connect ancillary video equipment, such as a television or projector to a computer.
Salutation The greeting line of a business letter.
Sans serif font A font with no lines or extensions on the ends of characters.
Scanners Input devices used to convert hard copy documents or images into digital files.
Screen (or window) In a graphical user interface, the rectangular box that contains the program displayed on the monitor.
ScreenTip A small box that displays useful information when you perform various mouse actions such as pointing to screen elements or dragging.
Scroll box The box in the vertical and horizontal scroll bars that can be dragged to reposition the document on the screen.
Scroll box (Excel) The box in the vertical and horizontal scroll bars that can be dragged to reposition the worksheet on the screen.
Scroll wheel A feature on some mouse pointing devices; rolling the wheel enables you to quickly move a page up or down within a window.
Scrolling The action of moving a pane or window vertically (up or down) or horizontally (side to side) to bring unseen areas into view.
Search Engines Software programs that search for keywords in files and documents or other Web sites found on the Internet.
Section bar A gray bar in a form or report that identifies and separates one section from another; used to select the section and to change the size of the adjacent section.
Sectors Wedge-shaped sections of a hard disk drive, each measured from the center point to the outer edge.
Select (Excel) Highlighting, by clicking or dragging with your mouse, one or more cells so that the selected cells can be edited, formatted, copied, or moved; selected cells are indicated by a dark border.
Select All box A box in the upper left corner of the worksheet grid that selects all the cells in a worksheet.
Select Query A database object that retrieves (selects) specific data from one or more tables and then displays the specified data in datasheet view.
Selecting text Highlighting text so that it can be formatted, deleted, copied, or moved.
Separator character A character used to identify column placement in text; usually a tab or a comma.
Serial port A type of port that sends data one bit at a time at speeds of up to 115 kilobits per second (Kbps).
Series A group of things that come one after another in succession; for example, January, February, March, and so on.
Serif A font design that includes small line extensions on the ends of the letters to guide the eye in reading from left to right.
Server In a client/server network, the computer that manages shared network resources and provides access to the client computer when requested.
Shape Style A combination of formatting effects that includes 3-D, glow, and bevel effects and shadows.
Shapes Drawing objects including lines, arrows, stars and banners, and ovals and rectangles that are used to help convey a message by showing process and by containing text.
Sheet tab The labels along the lower border of the workbook window that identify each worksheet.
Sheet tab scrolling buttons Buttons to the left of the sheet tabs used to display Excel sheet tabs that are not in view; used when there are more sheet tabs than will display in the space provided.
Sheet tabs The labels along the lower border of the worksheet window that identify each worksheet.
Shortcut menu A context-sensitive menu that displays commands and options relevant to the selected object.
Simple select query Another name for a select query.
Sizing handle A small square or circle in the corners and the middle of the sides of a graphic that can be used to increase or decrease the size of the graphic.
Sizing handles (Access) The small boxes around the edge of a control indicating the control is selected and that can be adjusted to resize the selected control.
Slide handouts Printed images of more than one slide on a sheet of paper.
Slide Sorter View A view useful for rearranging slides in which all of the slides in the presentation display as thumbnails.
Small caps A font effect, usually used in titles, that changes lowercase text into capital (uppercase) letters using a reduced font size.
SmartArt graphic A designer-quality visual representation of your information that you can create by choosing from among many different layouts to effectively community your message or ideas.
SmartArt Styles Combinations of formatting effects that are applied to diagrams.
Smartphones Cell phones with additional computing capabilities or the ability to access the Internet.
Soft copy Data or information displayed on a monitor.
Software patches Quick software fixes provided to resolve an error found in program code until a software update can be issued.
Software updates Small, downloadable software modules that repair errors identified in commercial program code.
Sorting The process of arranging data in a specific order based on the value in each field.
Sources A term used to describe a list of referenced works in a report or research paper, also referred to as Works Cited, Bibliography, or References, depending upon the report style.
Spam Junk or unsolicited email.
Speakers Output devices that allow the user to hear any auditory signals the computer sends.
Spin box A small box with an upward- and downwardpointing arrow that lets you move rapidly through a set of values by clicking.
Spin box arrows The upward- and downward-pointing arrows in a spin box.
Split bar The gray bar that indicates the location of the border between two Word windows.
Sponsored links Web sites that pay to be prominently displayed as results at a search engine site.
Spotlight The area in the opening Access program screen that displays content from Microsoft's Web site.
Spreadsheet Another name for a worksheet.
Spreadsheet software A program with which you perform calculations and numerical analyses.
Spyware Software designed to capture personal and confidential information that resides on a computer and then send it elsewhere.
Star topology A flexible and frequently used network configuration for businesses, in which nodes connect to a central communication device known as a switch.
Start button The button on the left side of the taskbar that is used to start programs, change system settings, find Windows help, or shut down the computer.
Statistical functions Pre-written formulas that analyze a group of measurements.
Status area Another name for the notification area on the right side of the taskbar.
Status bar The area along the lower edge of the program window that displays, on the left side, the current mode, page number, and document information, and on the right side, displays buttons to control how the window looks.
Status bar (Word) A horizontal bar at the bottom of the document window that displays, on the left side, the page and line number, word count, and the Proof button. On the right side, displays buttons to control the look of the window. The status bar can be customized to include other information.
Storage To retain data or information for future use.
Straight quote A quotation mark that uses straight, rather than curved, lines.
Style A set of formatting characteristics—such as line spacing, space after paragraphs, font, and font style— that can be applied to text, paragraphs, tables, or lists.
Styles Formats for paragraphs stored in one shortcut command.
Stylus An input device used to write on a tablet computer or PDA.
Subject line The line following the subject line in a business letter that states the purpose of the letter.
Submenu A second-level menu activated by selecting a menu option.
Subpoint Secondary-level information in a SmartArt graphic.
Subset A portion of the total records available.
Suite A collection of application software programs developed by the same manufacturer, bundled together and sold at a price that is usually less than the cost of purchasing each program individually.
SUM function A predefined formula that adds all the numbers in a selected range of cells.
Supercomputer A large, powerful computer typically devoted to specialized tasks.
Synonyms Words with the same meaning as a selected word.
System software The set of programs that enables a computer's hardware devices and program software to work together; it includes the operating system and utility programs.
System tray Another name for the notification area on the right side of the taskbar.
System unit The tower, box, or console that contains the critical hardware and electrical components of a computer.
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T

Tab order The order in which the insertion point moves from one field to the next in a form when you press the Tab key.
Tab stop Specific locations on a line of text, marked on the Word ruler, to which you can move the insertion point by pressing the Fkey; used to align and indent text.

Table A format for information that organizes and presents text and data in columns and rows.
Table (Access) The Access object that stores your data organized in an arrangement of columns and rows.
Table area The upper pane of the Query window, which displays the field lists for tables that are used in the query.
Table design The number of fields, and the type of content within each field, in an Access table.
Table Style In Outlook, a format that lists the contents of a folder on a single page and provides limited information about each item.
Table style (Excel) A predefined set of formatting characteristics, including font, alignment, and cell shading.
Table style (PowerPoint) Formatting applied to an entire table so that it is consistent with the presentation theme.
Table template A pre-built table format for common topics such as contacts, issues, and tasks.
Tables and Views category An arrangement of objects in the Navigation Pane in which the objects are grouped by the table to which they are related.
Tablet computer A portable computer that features a screen that swivels and can be written on using advanced handwriting recognition software.
Tabs A feature of Internet Explorer 7.0 that allows multiple Web pages to be displayed at the same time without opening multiple browsers.
Task A personal or work-related activity that you want to track until it is complete.
Task Pane In Outlook, a pane, usually below the appointment area, that can be used to schedule tasks.
Task pane A window within a Microsoft Office application that allows you to enter options for completing a command.
Taskbar The area of the screen that displays the Start button and the name of any open documents.
Template The horizontal placement of text within a placeholder.
Template (Access) A pre-formatted database designed for a specific purpose.
Text box A movable, resizable container for text or graphics.
Text box control The graphical object on a form or report that displays the data from the underlying table or query; a text box control is known as a bound control because its source data comes from a table or a query.
Text format A universal document format that retains text and paragraph marks, but does not support any text or paragraph formatting.
Text string A sequence of characters, which when used in query criteria, much be matched.
Text wrapping The manner in which text displays around an object.
Theme A predefined set of colors, fonts, lines, and fill effects that look good together and that can be applied to your entire document or to specific items
Theme (Excel) A predefined set of colors, fonts, lines, and fill effects that look good together and that can be applied to your entire workbook or to specific items— for example to a chart or table.
Thesaurus A research tool that provides a list of synonyms.
Three-color scale Compares a range of cells by using a gradation of three colors; the shades represent higher, middle, or lower values.
Thumb drive A small storage device that plugs into a computer USB port; also called a USB drive or a flash drive.
Thumbnail A miniature representation of the contents of a picture file.
Thumbnails (PowerPoint) Miniature images of each slide.
Title bar The bar at the top edge of the program window that indicates the name of the current workbook and the program name.
To-Do Bar A pane, usually along the right edge of the Outlook window, which provides quick access to daily tasks.
To-Do List pane In Outlook, a pane that displays an area to type a new task and a flag for each task.
Toggle button A button that can be turned on by clicking it once, and then turned off by clicking it again.
Toggle key A keyboard key that switches on or off each time it is pressed.
Token-ring topology See Ring topology.
Toolbars Rows of buttons, usually located under a menu bar, from which you can perform commands using a single click.
Top-level point The main text points in a SmartArt graphic.
Top/Bottom Rules A set of rules that enable you to apply conditional formatting to the highest and lowest values in a range of cells; for example, you can identify the top 5 selling products or the top 25 salaries in a personnel analysis.
Topology See Network topology.
Track Changes A Word tool that provides a visual indication of deletions, insertions, and formatting changes in a document.
Tracks Concentric circles on a hard disk drive.
Transitions The manner in which a slide appears or disappears during an onscreen slide show.
Trojan horse A program that appears to be useful or desirable, but acts maliciously in the background after installation.
Trust Center (Access) An area of the Access program where you can view the security and privacy settings for your Access installation.
Two-color scale Compares a range of cells by using a gradation of two colors.
Two-variable data table A data table that changes the values in two cells.
Type argument An optional argument in the PMT function that assumes that the payment will be made at the end of each time period.
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U

Unbound control A term used to describe a control that does not have a source of data.
Underlying formula The formula entered in a cell and visible only on the Formula Bar.
Underlying value The data that displays in the Formula Bar.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) The unique address used to locate a Web page or Web site.
Universal serial bus (USB) port A versatile port used to connect a wide array of peripheral devices to a computer.
USB drive A small storage device that plugs into a computer USB port; also called a thumb drive or a flash drive.
User interface The features of a computer operating system that enable you to interact with the computer.
Utility program A component of system software, typically a small program used to perform routine maintenance and housekeeping tasks for the computer.
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V

Value Another name for constant value.
Value after increase = base x percent for new value
Formula for calculating the value after an increase by multiplying the original value—the base—by the percent for new value (see the Percent for new value formula).
Value axis A numerical scale on the left side of a chart that shows the range of numbers for the data points; also referred to as the Y-axis.
Vertical scroll bar The bar at the right side of a window that enables you to move up and down to view information that extends beyond the top and bottom of the screen.
Vertical window split box A small box on the vertical scroll bar with which you can split the window into two vertical views of the same document.
View options (Word) Area on the right side of the status bar that contains buttons for viewing the document in Print Layout, Full Screen Reading, Web Layout, Master Document Tools, or Draft views, and also displays controls to Zoom Out and Zoom In.
View options Buttons on the right side of the status bar for viewing in normal, page layout view, or page break preview; also displays controls for zoom out and zoom in.
Views Ways to look at similar information in different formats and arrangements
Virus Malicious code or program, usually installed on a computer without the user's knowledge or permission.
Volatile Temporary storage, as in random access memory (RAM); data is erased when power is shut down.
Volatile (Excel) A term used to describe an Excel function that is subject to change each time the workbook is reopened; for example, the NOW function updates itself to the current date and time each time the workbook is opened.
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W

WAN See Wide area network.
Web browser Software that enables you to use the Web and navigate from page to page and site to site.
Web Layout view A document view that shows how the document would look if viewed with a Web browser.
Web page A document on the World Wide Web that displays as a screen with associated links, frames, pictures, and other features of interest.
Web site A group of related Web pages published to a specific location on the World Wide Web.
What-if analysis The process of changing the values in cells to see how those changes affect the outcome of formulas in your worksheet.
Wide area network (WAN) A network composed of local area networks connected over long distances.
Wildcard A character, such as an asterisk, that can be used to match any number of characters in a file search.
Wildcard character In a query, a character that serves as a placeholder for one or more unknown characters in your criteria.
Window A box or screen that displays information or a program.
Windows See Microsoft Windows.
Wireless network A network that connects using radio waves instead of wires or cable.
Wizard A feature in Microsoft Office programs that walks you step by step through a process.
Word document window Displays the active document.
Word processing software A program used to create and edit written documents such as papers, letters, and resumes.
WordArt A feature that applies combinations of decorative formatting to text, including shadows, reflections, and 3-D effects, as well as changing the line and fill color of text.
Wordpad A simple word processing program that comes with Windows XP.
Wordwrap The feature that moves text from the right edge of a paragraph to the beginning of the next line as necessary to fit within the margins.
Work week A calendar option that shows only the weekdays, Monday through Friday.
Workbook An Excel file that contains one or more worksheets.
Workbook-level buttons Buttons at the far right of the Ribbon tabs used to minimize or restore a displayed workbook.
Works Cited A term used to describe a list of referenced works placed at the end of a research paper or report when using the MLA Style.
Worksheet The primary document that you use in Excel to store and work with data, and which is formatted as a pattern of uniformly spaced horizontal and vertical lines.
Worksheet grid The area of the Excel window that displays the columns and rows that intersect to form the cells of the worksheet.
Worm A program that is able to replicate and spread from computer to computer without human interaction.
Writer's identification The name and title of the author of a letter, placed near the bottom of the letter, under the complimentary closing.
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X

X-axis Another name for the category axis.
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Y

Y-axis Another name for the value axis.
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Z

Zip drive A magnetic storage device used to save and retrieve data on Zip disks.
Zombie A computer that is controlled remotely and can be used to help spread viruses, spyware, and spam.
Zoom The action of increasing or decreasing the viewing area of the screen.  
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