back

Chapter 23
Carbohydrate Metabolism

23-01

Labeled

Title
diagram showing digestion of carbohydrates
Caption
The digestion of carbohydrates.
Notes
Dietary carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the digestive tract. The monosaccharides are then absorbed into the blood stream.
Keywords
23-02

Labeled

Title
overview of glucose metabolism
Caption
Glucose metabolism.
Notes
Synthetic pathways (anabolism) are shown in blue, pathways that break down biomolecule s(catabolism) are shown in yellow, and connections to lipid and protein metabolism are shown in green.
Keywords
anabolism, catabolism, glucose, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, pentose phosphate pathway
23-022

Labeled

Title
table of metabolic pathways of glucose
Caption
Metabolic pathways of glucose.
Notes
Keywords
glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, pentose phosphate pathway
23-03-01UN

Labeled

Title
glycolysis and its place in metabolism
Caption
Glycolysis and its place in metabolism
Notes
Keywords
glycolysis, carbohydrate
23-03-06UN

Labeled

Title
structures of pyruvate, ethyl alcohol, lactate, and acetyl-SCoA
Caption
The biochemical transformation of pyruvate.
Notes
Pyruvate is converted into one of three compounds, depending on the nature of the organism and metabolic conditions. Under normal aerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted to acetyl-SCoA. Under anaerobic conditions, it is converted to either lactate or ethyl alcohol.
Keywords
pyruvate, ethyl alcohol, lactate, acetyl-SCoA, aerobic, anaerobic
23-04-03UN

Labeled

Title
The complete catabolism of glucose and its place in metabolism.
Caption
The catabolism of glucose and its place in metabolism.
Notes
Keywords
catabolism, glucose, metabolism
23-05

Labeled

Title
ranges of blood glucose for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
Caption
Blood glucose concentrations.
Notes
The ranges for low blood glucose (in green: hypoglycemia), normal blood glucose (in purple), and high blood glucose (in orange; hyperglycemia) are indicated.
Keywords
hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, blood glucose
23-06

Labeled

Title
regulation of glucose by insulin and glucagon
Caption
The regulation of glucose concentration by insulin and glucagon from the pancreas.
Notes
Insulin is secreted in response to rising glucose concentration, as occurs after a meal. Glucagon is released under decreasing glucose concentrations, as occurs when it has been several hours since food has been consumed.
Keywords
insulin, glucagon, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia
23-07

Labeled

Title
graphical representation of biochemical changes during early stages of starvation
Caption
Relative changes during the early stages of starvation.
Notes
Keywords
starvation, ketone bodies, free fatty acids, glucagon, insulin, blood glucose, glycogen
23-07-04UN

Labeled

Title
graph of blood glucose in glucose tolerance test
Caption
Blood glucose concentration in glucose tolerance test for normal and diabetic individuals.
Notes
Keywords
blood glucose, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, glucose tolerance, diabetes
23-08

Labeled

Title
glycolgenesis and glycogenolysis
Caption
Glycolgenolysis and glycogenesis.
Notes
Reading from the top down shows the pathway for glycogen synthesis from glucose (glycogenesis). Reading from the bottom up shows the pathway for release of glucose from glycogen (glycogenolysis).
Keywords
glycogenesis, glycogenolysis
23-08-02UN

Labeled

Title
pyruvate and lactate in muscle metabolism
Caption
Pyruvate and lactate in muscle metabolism. At peak activity, ATP formation relies on creatine phosphate (CP) and glucose from muscle glycogen. Pyruvate is converted to lactate, which enters the bloodstream for transport to the liver, where it si recycled to pyruvate.
Notes
Keywords
pyruvate, lactate, creatine phosphate
23-09

Labeled

Title
glucose production during exercise (the Cori cycle)
Caption
Glucose production during exercise (the Cori cycle).
Notes
L-lactate produced in muscles under anaerobic conditions during exercise is sent to the liver, where it is converted back to glucose. The glucose can then return via the bloodstream to the muscles, to be stored as glycogen or used for energy production. Gluconeogenesis requires energy, so shifting this pathway to the liver frees the muscles from the burden of having to produce even more energy.
Keywords
glucose, lactate, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, Cori

© 1995-2002 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
A Pearson Company
Distance Learning at Prentice Hall
Legal Notice