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Chapter 11
Nuclear Chemistry

11-00-01UN

Labeled

Title
diagram for carbon-12
Caption
Carbon-12 is the most common isotope of carbon.
Notes
Keywords
nucleon, nuclide, mass number, atomic number, proton, neutron
11-01

Labeled

Title
effect of an electric fieeld on alpha, beta, gamma radiation
Caption
The effect of an electric field on alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
Notes
The radioactive source in the shielded box emits radiation, which passes between the two electrically charged plates. Alpha radiation is deflected toward the negative plate, beta radiation is deflected toward the positive plate, and gamma radiation is not deflected.
Keywords
radioactivity, alpha, beta, gamma, radiation
11-02

Labeled

Title
some known isotopes and the numbers of neutrons and protons in each
Caption
A plot showing the numbers of neutrons and protons for known isotopes of the first 18 elements.
Notes
Stable (nonradioactive) isotopes of these elements have equal or nearly equal numbers of neutrons and protons.
Keywords
radioactive, isotope, radioactivity, radioisotope, radionuclide
11-03

Labeled

Title
alpha emission illustrated
Caption
Alpha emission. Emission of an alpha particle from an atom of uranium-238 produces an atom of thorium-234.
Notes
Keywords
nuclear decay, transmutation, alpha radiation, nuclear reaction
11-03-01UN

Labeled

Title
alpha emission
Caption
Alpha emission involves the release of an alpha particle (composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons) from a nucleus. The alpha particle is equivalent to a helium nucleus, so is often written with the symbol He.
Notes
Keywords
radiation, nuclear decay, alpha emission, transmutation
11-03-02UN

Labeled

Title
beta emission in an equation
Caption
Beta emission involves the decomposition of a neutron to yield an electron and a proton. The electron is ejected as the beta particle.
Notes
Keywords
radiation, nuclear decay, beta emission, transmutation
11-03-03UN

Labeled

Title
positron emission
Caption
Potassium-40 emits a positron when it decays.
Notes
A positron is a "positive electron," which has the same mass as an electron but a positive charge.
Keywords
radiation, nuclear decay, positron emission, transmutation, positron
11-03-04UN

Labeled

Title
electron capture
Caption
Electron capture is a process in which a nucleus captures an inner-shell electron, thereby undergoing transmutation.
Notes
Keywords
radiation, nuclear decay, electron capture, transmutation
11-03-05UNP.17

Labeled

Title
Key concept problem 11.7
Caption
Identify the isotopes involved, and tell the type of decay process occurring in the nuclear reaction shown.
Notes
One neutron is lost and one proton gained in this nuclear reaction. Therefore this is an example of beta emission.
Keywords
radiation, nuclear decay, beta emission, transmutation
11-03-08

Labeled

Title
radioactive half life
Caption
The radioactive half-life is the time required for one half of a radioactive sample to decay.
Notes
Keywords
radioactivity, half-life, decay, rate
11-04

Labeled

Title
graph of radioactive decay
Caption
The decay of a radioactive nucleus over time.
Notes
All nuclear decays follow this curve, whether the half-lives are measured in years, days, minutes, or seconds,. Thatis, 50% of the sample remains after one half-life, 25% after two half-lives, 12.5% after three half-lives, etc..
Keywords
radioactivity, half-life, decay, rate
11-04-01UN

Labeled

Title
Worked example 11.4
Caption
Phosphorous-32, a radioisotope used in leukemia therapy, has a half-life of about 14 days. Approximately what percent of a sample remains after 8 weeks?
Notes
Keywords
radioactivity, half-life, decay, rate
11-04-02UN

Labeled

Title
Key concept problem 11.9
Caption
What is the half-life of the radionucleide that shows the decay curve here?
Notes
Keywords
radioactivity, half-life, decay, rate
11-05

Labeled

Title
radioactive decay series
Caption
The decay series from uranium-238 to lead-206.
Notes
Keywords
radioactivity, decay, decay series, transmutation
11-06

Labeled

Title
Geiger counter photo and illustration
Caption
A Geiger counter for measuring radiation.
Notes
As radiation enters the tube through a thin window, it ionizes argon atoms and produces electrons that conduct a tiny electric current between the walls and the center electrode. The current flow then registers on the meter.
Keywords
11-07

Labeled

Title
nuclear fission illustrated
Caption
A nuclear chain reaction.
Notes
Each fission event produces additional neutrons that induce more fissions. The rate of the process increases at each stage. Such chain reactions usually lead to the formation of many different fission products in addition to the two indicated.
Keywords
fission, chain reaction, critical mass
11-07-04UN

Labeled

Title
Key concept problem 11.17
Caption
Magnesium-28 decays by beta emission to give aluminum-28. If yellow spheres represent magnesium-28 and blue spheres represent aluminum-28, how many half-lives have passed in the sample shown?
Notes
Keywords
radioactivity, half-life, decay, rate
11-07-05UN

Labeled

Title
Key concept problem 11.19
Caption
What is the symbol of the isotope represented by the following drawing? Blue spheres represent neutrons and red spheres represent protons.
Notes
Keywords
nuclide, isotope, proton, neutron, nucleon
11-07-06UN

Labeled

Title
Key concept problem 11.20
Caption
The chart shows a portion of the decay series for plutonium-241. The series has some arrows pointing right and others pointing left. Which type of arrow corresponds to alpha emission and which to beta emission?
Notes
Keywords
decay series, alpha, beta, emission, transmutation
11-07-07UN

Labeled

Title
Key concept problem 11.22
Caption
Identify the isotopes involved and tell the type of decay process occurring in the nuclear reaction illustrated.
Notes
Keywords
transmutation, emission, alpha, beta
11-07-08UN

Labeled

Title
Key concept problem 11.23
Caption
Determine the half-life of the radionuclide that gives the decay curve shown.
Notes
Keywords
radioactivity, half-life, decay, rate

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