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Chapter 1
Introduction: Matter and Measurement

01-01

Labeled

Title
Chemistry: the Central Science
Caption
Some relationships between chemistry, the central science, and other health-related disciplines.
Notes
Chemistry is the "central science" because of its close relationship to all other science disciplines. Our understanding of chemistry aids our understanding of all sorts of other scientific processes, in disciplines such as biology, geology, and environmental science.
Keywords
chemistry, central science, science disciplines
01-03

Labeled

Title
States of Matter
Caption
The three states of matter--solid, liquid, and gas.
Notes
A substance is a solid if it has a definite shape and volume. Liquids have definite volumes but take the shape of their container. Gases do not have definite volumes or shapes, and expand to fill their containers.
Keywords
states of matter, solid, liquid, gas, change of state
01-04

Labeled

Title
A scheme for the classification of matter
Caption
Matter can be classified according to its properties and composition.
Notes
All of matter can be classified according to this flow chart. Mixtures have variable properties and composition. Pure substances have invariable properties and composition. Pure substances can be further divided into chemical compounds and elements. Chemical compounds can be separated into simpler substances through chemical reactions. Elements can not be.
Keywords
classification of matter, pure substance, mixture, chemical compound, element
01-04-06UN

Labeled

Title
Chemical formulas
Caption
Chemical formulas are one way chemists represent pure substances.
Notes
Chemical formulas are used to describe pure substances. Chemical formulas show what types and how many of each type of atom is in a substance. Each type of atom in a formula is represented with the symbol for the element. Multiple atoms of one type in a formula are designated by subscripted numbers placed behind the elemental symbol.
Keywords
chemical formula
01-05

Labeled

Title
The Periodic Table
Caption
The periodic table is an organized listing of all elements.
Notes
The periodic table is an organized listing of all the elements. Its organization is based on the structures of the atoms of each element as well as the properties of elemental substances. Elements classified as metals appear on the left and elements classified as nonmetals appear on the right side of the table.
Keywords
periodic table, elements, metals, nonmetals
01-05-05UN

Labeled

Title
The Noble Gases
Caption
The noble gases are those elements that appear in the far right hand column of the periodic table.
Notes
The elements known as the noble gases are those that appear in the far right column of the periodic table. Each of these elemental substances is a gas at room temperature. They are referred to as the noble gases because of their general unreactivity. Only a handful of compounds including these elements have ever been produced.
Keywords
noble gases, periodic table
01-05-06UN

Labeled

Title
Coinage Metals
Caption
The coinage metals are copper, silver, and gold.
Notes
The "coinage metals" are copper, silver, and gold. They are all found in one column near the center of the periodic table. These metals are frequently found in coins or in jewelry because they are quite resistant to corrosion.
Keywords
coinage metals, periodic table
01-05-07UN

Labeled

Title
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Caption
Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids appear in distinct places on the periodic table.
Notes
Metals are found toward the right side of the periodic table. Nonmetals are found toward the left side of the table. Metalloids, which have properties intermediate between the metals and nonmetals, exist in an area of the table between the metals and nonmetals.
Keywords
metals, nonmetals, metalloids, periodic table
01-05-08UN

Labeled

Title
Lanthanides and Actinides
Caption
The lanthanides and actinides are the elements appearing in the two rows underneath the rest of the periodic table.
Notes
Americium is a radioactive element used in smoke detectors. Because the lanthanide and actinide elements fit into the periodic table toward the right side, they are considered metals. They are usually placed below the other elements in the table in order to make the table easier to display.
Keywords
metals, nonmetals, periodic table

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