After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Identify and define the elements of cognition.
- Compare and contrast conscious, subconscious, and nonconscious mental processing.
- Distinguish between formal and informal reasoning. Provide examples of each.
- Describe the development of reflective judgment.
- Identify barriers to reasoning rationally. Provide examples of each.
- Explain cognitive dissonance theory and state three conditions under which one is likely to try to reduce dissonance.
- Compare and contrast the psychometric and cognitive approaches to measuring intelligence.
- Cite criticisms of the IQ test.
- Explain Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence.
- Discuss Howard Gardner's domains of intelligence.
- Summarize the research on the heritability of intelligence.
- Summarize the research on group differences in intelligence.
- Identify and discuss environmental influences on intelligence.
- Discuss the role of attitudes and motivation on intellectual success.
- Summarize the research on animal intelligence and language and explain the controversy over the interpretation of these findings.