After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Outline the three stages of prenatal development.
- List and discuss potentially harmful environmental influences on prenatal development.
- Identify and describe the newborn's reflex and sensory capacities.
- Explain the significance of the Harlow monkey studies and the Ainsworth Strange Situation for the study of attachment.
- Discuss milestones in language development.
- Outline Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
- Describe Kohlberg's and Gilligan's theories of moral development. Cite criticisms of both theories.
- Discuss biological, cognitive, and learning influences on gender development.
- Discuss physiological and psychological changes that occur during adolescence.
- Identify and describe Erikson's eight stages of development, along with the primary crisis that must be resolved at each stage.
- Examine transitions that mark adulthood.
- Define the concept of social clock and explain its purpose.
- Distinguish between fluid and crystallized intelligence.
- Examine the evidence that refutes the widespread assumption that childhood traumas have specific and inescapable effects.
- Discuss what is known about the origins of resilience.