After completeing this chapter you should be able to:
- Define personality.
- Outline Freud's theory of psychoanalysis, including personality structures, psychosexual
- stages of development, and defense mechanisms.
- Examine the psychodynamic contributions of Jungian theory and the object-relations school.
- Explain how personality traits are assessed.
- Identify and describe the "big five" personality traits.
- Summarize what is known about personality based on temperament studies and heritability studies.
- Discuss the contributions of studies conducted with identical and fraternal twins in understanding heritability.
- Explain the concept of reciprocal determinism.
- Summarize the recent research regarding the influence of parents and peers in the development of personality.
- Discuss the problem that cultural psychologists face of how to describe cultural influences on personality without stereotyping.
- Explain the humanistic perspective of personality development.
- Critically evaluate the psychodynamic, genetic, cultural and humanistic theories of personality.
- Cite criticisms of each.