- Intelligence is the capacity to learn from experience and adapt successfully to one's environment.
- The Stanford-Binet is an intelligence test that yields an intelligence quotient (IQ).
- The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) gives separate verbal and performance scores.
- Group aptitude tests include the SAT and the ACT.
- Intelligence tests need to have standardization, reliability, and validity in order to be considered accurate measures.
- There is disagreement about whether intelligent tests are biased.
- General intelligence is a broad factor underlying all mental abilities and evidence from studies of infants and adults support this concept.
- Gardner proposed seven kinds of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
- Sternberg offers a triarchic theory of intelligence, which includes analytic intelligence, creativity, and practical intelligence.
- Studies of twins and other relatives show a heredity influence on intelligence.
- Research also indicates that environmental factors affect intelligence and this helps explain ethnic differences in IQ scores.
- Girls score higher on verbal tests and boys score higher on mathematical and visual-spatial tests.
- Individualized or special programs in educational settings exist for both gifted and mentally retarded children, which help meet their special needs.
- Teacher expectations can influence student performance as evidenced by research on the self-fulfilling prophecy. This prophecy leads to stereotype threat and grouping or tracking students.