After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Define intelligence.
- Compare different testing instruments used to measure intelligence, including the Stanford-Binet, the Wechsler scales, and group aptitude tests.
- Identify and define three key ingredients necessary in order for a psychological test to be accurate.
- Discuss whether intelligence tests are biased.
- Define the concept of general intelligence and discuss two sources of evidence that support the concept of general intelligence.
- Identify and describe the multiple intelligences proposed by Gardner.
- Explain Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence.
- Examine the social and political implications of the nature-nurture debate; and summarize the research on the relative influence of genetics and environment on intelligence.
- Examine racial, cultural, and gender differences in IQ scores; and cite research on the origin of such differences.
- Consider the educational issues raised by giftedness and mental retardation. Define mental retardation.
- Describe the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Discuss the three ways that IQ-based expectancies can affect the educational process.