Thought and Language
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
- Define a concept and explain how concepts are stored in memory.
- Explain the different ways to represent a problem, including mental images and mental models.
- List and describe the four basic problem-solving processes that we can use to generate solutions. The four basic solutions are trial and error, an algorithm, heuristics, and insight.
- Discuss blind spots in problem solving, including representation failures, functional fixedness, mental sets, the confirmation bias, and belief perseverance.
- Explain syllogistic reasoning and conditional reasoning and discuss how good we are at using these rules of formal logic.
- Examine biases in judgment, including the representative heuristic, the availability heuristic, framing effects, and overconfidence.
- Identify and describe universal properties of all languages.
- Discuss whether animals can learn language and examine why the notion of animal language is controversial.
- Explore the relationship between thought and language.
- Discuss the impact of using sexist language.