After completing this chapter you should be able to:
- Outline the process of classical conditioning.
- Define four basic principles of learning, including acquisition, extinction, generalization, and discrimination.
- Discuss how research on biological preparedness and cognitive representations has changed the early Pavlovian stimulus-response approach to conditioning.
- Discuss practical applications of classical conditioning.
- Explain Thorndike's law of effect.
- Identify and define the principles of reinforcement.
- Describe the practical applications of operant conditioning.
- What are the schedules of reinforcement and how do they influence responding?
- Why did Skinner prefer reinforcement to punishment?
- Consider how operant conditioning has been changed by research on biological predispositions and cognitive processes.
- Define observational learning and identify and describe the four steps involved in observational learning.