Social and Cultural Influences
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain the concept of social perception.
- Describe the process of making attributions. Discuss attribution theory.
- Discuss the process of forming impressions. Consider the cognitive and behavioral confirmation biases that affect this process.
- Examine the determinants of attraction: familiarity, similarity, and physical attractiveness.
- Examine how social influence is automatic. Explain the results of Sherif's classic study of group norms. Describe Asch's research on conformity. Distinguish between informational and normative social influence and consider the relationship between these forms of social influence and conformity.
- Identify situational factors that increase or decrease majority influence.
- Describe Milgram's classic study of obedience; and identify and discuss three factors that affect obedience.
- Examine the two-track model of persuasion and discuss how persuasion is affected by the following factors: a source, a message, and an audience.
- Explain cognitive-dissonance theory.
- Examine group processes, such as social facilitation and social loafing.
- Define aggression and consider the role of biological factors, aversive stimulation, situational cues, and media violence in aggression.
- Define altruism.
- Define the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility.
- Describe individualism and collectivism.
- Define an independent view of the self and an interdependent view of the self and discuss which type of culture fosters each view of the self.
- Define discrimination and discuss its roots.
- Examine how stereotypes are formed and if stereotyping is inevitable.
- Define prejudice and discuss the theories that explain and predict it.
- Discuss the issue of racism and whether it still exists in the U.S. today.