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Human Development
Chapter Review

  1. Two methods used in developmental psychology are cross-sectional research, which involves studying people of different ages once, and longitudinal research, which involves studying the same people over their life span.
  2. The three stages of prenatal development are the germinal stage, embryonic stage, and the fetal stage.
  3. Teratogens, substances potentially hazardous to the developing embryo and fetus, include alcohol, cigarettes, cocaine, aspirin, marijuana, AIDS, rubella, and x-rays.
  4. Two research techniques used to study infants are habituation, which is the tendency for attention to a stimulus to wane over time, and recovery.
  5. The newborn has many reflexes and the ability to recognize both face-like patterns and the human voice.
  6. Biological changes that occur during infancy and childhood include brain and nervous system growth and the refinement of motor skills.
  7. Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
  8. The information-processing view focuses not on the transition from one stage to the next, but on the gradual increase in the ability to remember and process information.
  9. The strange-situation test is used to identify whether an infant has a secure or an insecure attachment to their primary caregiver.
  10. The key factor regarding the effects of day care is the quality of the care.
  11. Peer relationships become more important as the child grows older with popular children experiencing social and emotional benefits.
  12. Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, begins with puberty, which is characterized by an increase in sex hormones and rapid growth.
  13. Boys adjust better to early sexual maturation than girls do.
  14. Adolescents who engage in formal operational thought may show more flexibility in moral reasoning than they did as children.
  15. Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, which includes preconventional, conventional, and postconventional morality, has been criticized for being biased.
  16. Social development in adolescence involves dealing with parental relationships, peer relationships, and sexuality.
  17. In terms of biological changes, adult development involves loss of muscle strength, menopause for women, and later, declines in sensory acuity, bone density, and immune system functioning.
  18. Because of a general slowing of neural processes and an impairment of sensory acuity, the elderly may experience a loss in the ability to free-recall new information.
  19. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of severe cognitive deficits and progressively destroys brain cells.
  20. Fluid intelligence tends to decline after middle adulthood while crystallized intelligence tends to remain stable throughout life.
  21. Erikson offered eight stages of social development that involve crises experienced by people throughout the life span from infancy to old age.
  22. The social clock sets the expected times when major life events should occur and gives people a developmental guideline.
  23. The five stages of coping with one's impending death are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

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