- Two methods used in developmental psychology are cross-sectional research, which involves studying people of different ages once, and longitudinal research, which involves studying the same people over their life span.
- The three stages of prenatal development are the germinal stage, embryonic stage, and the fetal stage.
- Teratogens, substances potentially hazardous to the developing embryo and fetus, include alcohol, cigarettes, cocaine, aspirin, marijuana, AIDS, rubella, and x-rays.
- Two research techniques used to study infants are habituation, which is the tendency for attention to a stimulus to wane over time, and recovery.
- The newborn has many reflexes and the ability to recognize both face-like patterns and the human voice.
- Biological changes that occur during infancy and childhood include brain and nervous system growth and the refinement of motor skills.
- Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
- The information-processing view focuses not on the transition from one stage to the next, but on the gradual increase in the ability to remember and process information.
- The strange-situation test is used to identify whether an infant has a secure or an insecure attachment to their primary caregiver.
- The key factor regarding the effects of day care is the quality of the care.
- Peer relationships become more important as the child grows older with popular children experiencing social and emotional benefits.
- Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, begins with puberty, which is characterized by an increase in sex hormones and rapid growth.
- Boys adjust better to early sexual maturation than girls do.
- Adolescents who engage in formal operational thought may show more flexibility in moral reasoning than they did as children.
- Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, which includes preconventional, conventional, and postconventional morality, has been criticized for being biased.
- Social development in adolescence involves dealing with parental relationships, peer relationships, and sexuality.
- In terms of biological changes, adult development involves loss of muscle strength, menopause for women, and later, declines in sensory acuity, bone density, and immune system functioning.
- Because of a general slowing of neural processes and an impairment of sensory acuity, the elderly may experience a loss in the ability to free-recall new information.
- Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of severe cognitive deficits and progressively destroys brain cells.
- Fluid intelligence tends to decline after middle adulthood while crystallized intelligence tends to remain stable throughout life.
- Erikson offered eight stages of social development that involve crises experienced by people throughout the life span from infancy to old age.
- The social clock sets the expected times when major life events should occur and gives people a developmental guideline.
- The five stages of coping with one's impending death are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.