Thought, Language, and Intelligence
After completing this chapter you should be able to:
- Define a concept and explain how concepts are stored in memory.
- Explain the different ways to represent a problem, including mental images and mental models.
- List and describe the four basic problem-solving processes that can be used to generate solutions.
- Discuss the shortcomings in problem-solving ability, including representation failures, functional fixedness, and the confirmation bias.
- Explain syllogistic reasoning and conditional reasoning and discuss how good people are at using these rules of formal logic.
- Examine biases in judgment, including the representative heuristic, the availability heuristic, the anchoring effect, and overconfidence.
- Describe the steps involved in critical thinking.
- Identify and describe the characteristics of human language.
- List the developmental sequence of language and identify developmental theories of language.
- Discuss whether apes can learn language and examine why this notion is controversial.
- Explore the relationship between thought and language.
- Define intelligence.
- Compare different testing instruments used to measure intelligence, including the Stanford-Binet, the Wechsler scales, and group aptitude tests.
- Identify and define three key ingredients necessary in order for a psychological test to be accurate.
- Discuss whether intelligence tests are biased.
- Define the concept of general intelligence.
- Identify and describe the multiple intelligences proposed by Gardner.
- Explain Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence.
- Examine the social and political implications of the nature and nurture debate, and summarize the research on the relative influences of genetics and environment on intelligence.
- Examine racial, cultural, and gender differences in IQ scores and explanations for these differences.
- Describe the phenomenon of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Discuss the two ways that IQ-based expectancies can affect the educational process.