After completing this chapter you should be able to:
- Define consciousness and describe at least three processes that influence this state of awareness.
- Explain the concept of selective attention and give examples of selective attention.
- Describe the phenomenon of divided attention and discuss how the distinction between effortful and automatic processing explains this ability.
- Consider whether it is possible to experience influence without awareness. Explain how mere exposure and priming may influence preferences and behavior.
- Explain the difference between biological rhythms and circadian rhythms. Discuss the human sleep-wake cycle and whether it is determined by endogenous (internal) or environmental (outside patterns of lightness and darkness) forces.
- Consider the relation between the sleep-wake cycle, night work (and other disruptions of the cycle), and health.
- List the stages of sleep and identify the EEG patterns associated with each stage.
- Distinguish between REM and NREM sleep.
- Consider two theories about why animals sleep.
- Describe the nature of dreams and discuss the content of dreams. Consider the factors that influence the content of dreams.
- Distinguish between the Freudian theory of dream interpretation and the activation-synthesis approach to understanding dreams.
- List and describe the major sleep disturbances, including insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, REM sleep behavior disorder, and other parasomnias.
- Define hypnosis and explain the stages involved in hypnosis.
- Discuss which factors are related to hypnotic responsiveness.
- Examine research on the myths and realities of hypnosis (e.g., coercion, pain relief, posthypnotic suggestion, and memory enhancement).
- Discuss whether hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness by comparing special-process theories and social-cognitive theories.
- Define the concepts of physical and psychological dependence.
- Discuss the physical and psychological effects of sedatives, stimulants, hallucinogens, and opiates.
- Discuss whether it is possible to control consciousness, and consider methods used to focus attention (e.g., meditation).