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 Chapter Test Multiple Choice

1 .       In the following standard-form syllogism, which term is the middle term? No babies are soldiers; some Californians are soldiers; therefore, some Californians are not babies. [Hint]

 soldiers Californians. babies There is no middle term.

2 .       What is the mood of the following syllogism? Some politicians are not good speakers. All politicians are individuals who appear on television. Therefore, no individuals who appear on television are good speakers. [Hint]

 OAO OAE OAA OOA

3 .       The main reason for indicating the figure of a standard form syllogism is: [Hint]

 we need to keep track of the position of the middle term in order to discriminate between syllogisms with identical moods. only certain figures are valid. we would have twice as many syllogistic forms to deal with if we didn't specify a conventional order, with the major premiss first and the minor second; the four figures help us narrow the field considerably. we cannot tell if a syllogism is valid until we put the premises in the correct order (with the major premise first and the minor second); the figure helps us do this.

4 .       When testing a standard form syllogism for validity with a Venn diagram, the conclusion: [Hint]

 is always diagrammed last. is diagrammed first. is never diagrammed. may prove elusive, requiring the tester to resort to other methods of determining validity.

5 .       Which proposition should be diagrammed first in the following syllogism? All cardiologists are wealthy individuals. Some cardiologists are Jamaican vacationers. Therefore, some Jamaican vacationers are wealthy individuals. [Hint]

 It makes no difference which of the two premises is diagrammed first. All cardiologists are wealthy individuals. Some Jamaican vacationers are wealthy individuals. Some cardiologists are Jamaican vacationers.

6 .       In a Venn diagram, when an x is placed on a line between two regions, this indicates: [Hint]

 that either of two regions could contain an x. that the syllogism is invalid. that both regions contain an x. that you have made a mistake.

7 .       Is any rule broken in the following example? All thoroughbred horses are racing animals. All white horses are thoroughbred horses. Therefore, all thoroughbred white horses are racing animals. [Hint]

 It commits the fallacy of the undistributed middle; it breaks rule 3. No rule is broken here; you will observe that it is an AAA-1 type of syllogism, the only valid form with an A conclusion. It has more than three terms; it breaks rule 1. It commits the existential fallacy; it breaks rule 6.

8 .       Which fallacy is committed in the following syllogism? No magicians are trustworthy business partners. Some trustworthy business partners are not con artists. Therefore, some con artists are not magicians. [Hint]

 It commits the fallacy of exclusive premises. It commits the existential fallacy. It commits the fallacy of the undistributed middle. It commits the fallacy of the illicit major

9 .       In the following syllogism, is any fallacy committed? Some household cleaners are not toxic chemicals. Some abrasive compounds are household cleaners. Therefore, some abrasive compounds are not toxic chemicals [Hint]

 No fallacy is committed; it is one of the 15 valid syllogisms. Yes, this syllogism has an undistributed minor premise. Yes, this syllogism has exclusive premises. Yes, this syllogism does not distribute the middle term.

10 .       Name the fallacy, if any, committed by the following argument: "No cocker spaniels are good watchdogs, and some good watchdogs are not housebroken animals, so we may conclude that some cocker spaniels are not housebroken animals." [Hint]

 The fallacy of the undistributed middle. The fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion from a negative premise. The fallacy of exclusive premises. The fallacy of illicit major.

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