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The Self
Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter you should be able to:

  • Describe the relationship between culture and the self.
  • Understand how self-conceptions become more abstract in adolescence.
  • Explain how self-conceptions become more complex in adolescence.
  • Define self-esteem and self-image.
  • Describe self-esteem from preadolescence through adolescence.
  • Explain different aspects of self-esteem.
  • Describe self-esteem and physical appearance.
  • Understand the influences on self-esteem.
  • Describe self-esteem in emerging adulthood.
  • Explain the emotional self.
  • Understand Gilligan's view of gender and the emotional self.
  • Define identity.
  • Explain Erikson's theory of identity.
  • Understand the identity statuses according to Marcia.
  • Describe gender and identity.
  • Explain the relation between culture and identity formation.
  • Understand identity development among ethnic minorities.
  • Describe the four ways that adolescent ethnic minorities respond to their awareness of their ethnicity according to Jean Phinney.
  • Understand identity and globalization.
  • Describe the self when alone.
  • Understand the findings of Robert Weiss as related to loneliness.

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