After studying this chapter you should be able to:
- Describe the relationship between culture and the self.
- Understand how self-conceptions become more abstract in adolescence.
- Explain how self-conceptions become more complex in adolescence.
- Define self-esteem and self-image.
- Describe self-esteem from preadolescence through adolescence.
- Explain different aspects of self-esteem.
- Describe self-esteem and physical appearance.
- Understand the influences on self-esteem.
- Describe self-esteem in emerging adulthood.
- Explain the emotional self.
- Understand Gilligan's view of gender and the emotional self.
- Define identity.
- Explain Erikson's theory of identity.
- Understand the identity statuses according to Marcia.
- Describe gender and identity.
- Explain the relation between culture and identity formation.
- Understand identity development among ethnic minorities.
- Describe the four ways that adolescent ethnic minorities respond to their awareness of their ethnicity according to Jean Phinney.
- Understand identity and globalization.
- Describe the self when alone.
- Understand the findings of Robert Weiss as related to loneliness.