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 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation Short Answer

 1 . Using Table 16.1 in the textbook, determine the relative humidity of each of the following kilograms of air with the indicated temperatures and water vapor contents: a) temperature: 25°C; water vapor content: 5 grams/kilogram, and b) temperature: 41°F; water vapor content: 3 grams/kilogram.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 2 . List two different ways that the relative humidity of a parcel of air can be increased. Assume a 5° Celsius kilogram of air with a relative humidity of 80%. From Table 16.1 in the text, what will be the air's relative humidity if the temperature is raised to 15°C and no additional water vapor is added or subtracted?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 3 . Using Table 16.1 in the textbook, determine the dew point of a kilogram of air that has the following temperature and relative humidity. a) temperature: 25°C; relative humidity: 50% b) temperature: 59°F; relative humidity: 20%   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 4 . Write a short statement describing the relations between a parcel of air's dew point temperature, air temperature, and relative humidity.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 5 . Beginning with this map of the U.S.A. dew point statistics determine the approximate dew point temperature at your location. Using the information at the same site, estimate the temperature for your location. Compare the dew point temperature to the air temperature and write a brief statement about the relative humidity and the chance for condensation and/or precipitation at your location.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 6 . Explain the principle of the psychrometer for measuring relative humidity. Then, using Appendix Table D.1 in the textbook, determine the relative humidity of a parcel of air that yielded the following psychrometer readings: a dry-bulb temperature of 24°C and a wet-bulb temperature of 16°C.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 7 . What is the difference between stable and unstable air?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 8 . Assume a parcel of air at sea level with a temperature of 25° Celsius and a relative humidity of 50%. If the parcel is forced to rise up the windward slope of a 5000 meter mountain, and no additional water vapor is added or subtracted, at approximately what altitude will condensation occur? What will be the parcel of air's temperature at the summit of the mountain?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 9 . Examine closely this University of Illinois site on cloud types. List and describe the two criteria that are used as the basis for cloud classification. What causes contrails? What are mammatus clouds and the popular misconception about them?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 10 . Use the U.S.A. cloud cover statistics from coolwx.com to estimate the current percentage of cloud cover in the U.S. Which parts of the country are covered by clouds? What has been the approximate average percentage of cloud cover over the country during the last 10 days?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 11 . List and briefly describe the two mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how precipitation forms.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 12 . Examine this radar image of North America from Intellicast. Where is precipitation presently occurring? What is the form of the precipitation? Is it light or heavy? Use your computer's mouse to point to your location and/or an area of activity on the map and left-click to zoom in and examine the region closely.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 13 . According to this National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) worldwide map of annual average precipitation in mm/day, where on Earth are the areas of greatest annual average precipitation in mm/day? Where are the regions of lowest precipitation? What is the approximate annual average precipitation in mm/day at your location? How many millimeters of precipitation would this be per year at your location? How many inches per year?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 14 . Referring to the map in question 13, describe the pattern of precipitation that occurs in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Considering the areas of highest and lowest precipitation, where is the source of the moisture for most of the central and eastern United States? Would the mechanism that produces the precipitation most likely be orographic lifting or frontal wedging? Explain your answer.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 15 . Examine this National Climate Data Center site and determine the locations of the places on Earth that receive the highest and lowest average annual precipitation. What is the average annual precipitation at each of the locations? Of the three processes responsible for lifting air, which is most likely occurring in the region of the highest average annual precipitation?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 16 . Atmospheric moisture not only varies from place to place, but also from one altitude to the next. Looking at this vertical plot of air temperature and dew-point, would you say that at the location indicated relative humidity is uniform throughout the atmosphere? If not, at approximately what altitude is the air closest to saturation?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 17 . Referring to the diagram in Question 16, what reasons can you offer for the general decrease in the dew-point temperature with increasing altitude? Why, beginning at about 9 km above the surface, do the dew-point and air temperatures depart greatly from one another. (Hint: Review to the vertical structure of the atmosphere in Chapter 15.)   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 18 . To assist you in understanding the important role of satellites images in weather forecasting, complete this Interpreting Weather-Satellite Images exercise hosted by San Francisco State University. When you have finished, write a short summary of your experience and how the exercise enhanced your knowledge of satellite images.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 19 . Using what you have learned in question 18, proceed to this American Meteorological Society Web site and, using the satellite images provided at the site, prepare a brief description of the current cloud cover in North America.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 20 . In the above satellite composite image, what atmospheric lifting mechanism is primarily responsible for the clouds over the Himalaya Mountains (Point A)? Explain how this mechanism results in cloud formation. What lifting mechanism is most likely responsible for the clouds over the Indian Ocean (Point B)?   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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at the end. 21 . This NASA space shuttle photo of clouds forming over Madagascar was taken when atmospheric conditions were such that air easily became unstable. Notice that the small coastal islands are sufficient to initiate cloud formation and, as you can see, once the air moves over the main island cloud formation begins in earnest. Write a caption for the photo, interpreting the scene in terms of what you have learned in Chapter 16.   To create paragraphs in your essay response, type

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