This book is an introduction to semiconductor devices for undergraduate electrical engineers, other interested students, and practicing engineers and scientists whose understanding of modern electronics needs updating. The book is organized to bring students with a background in sophomore physics to a level of understanding which will allow them to read much of the current literature on new devices and applications.
An undergraduate course in electronic devices has two basic purposes: (1) to provide students with a sound understanding of existing devices, so that their studies of electronic circuits and systems will be meaningful; and (2) to develop the basic tools with which they can later learn about newly developed devices and applications. Perhaps the second of these objectives is the more important in the long run; it is clear that engineers and scientists who deal with electronics will continually be called upon to learn about new devices and processes in the future. For this reason, we have tried to incorporate the basics of semiconductor materials and conduction processes in solids, which arise repeatedly in the literature when new devices are explained. Some of these concepts are often omitted in introductory courses, with the view that they are unnecessary for understanding the fundamentals of junctions and transistors.We believe this view neglects the important goal of equipping students for the task of understanding a new device by reading the current literature.Therefore, in this text most of the commonly used semiconductor terms and concepts are introduced and related to a broad range of devices.
As a further aid in developing techniques for independent study, the reading list at the end of each chapter includes a few articles which students can read comfortably as they study this book.We do not expect that students will read all articles recommended in the reading lists; nevertheless, some exposure to periodicals is useful in laying the foundation for a career of constant updating and self-education.We have also added a summary of the key concepts at the end of each chater.
One of the keys to success in understanding this material is to work problems that exercise the concepts.The problems at the end of each chapter are designed to facilitate learning the material.Very few are simple plug-inproblems. Instead, they are chosen to reinforce or extend the material presented in the chapter. In addition, we have added self quiz problems which test the conceptual understanding on the part of the students.
In keeping with the goals described above, examples and problems are stated in terms of units commonly used in the semiconductor literature.The basic system of units is rationalized MKS, although cm is often used as a convenient unit of length. Similarly, electron volts (eV) are often used rather than joules (J) to measure the energy of electrons. Units for various quantities are given in Appendices I and II.
In presenting this material at the undergraduate level, one must anticipate a few instances which call for a phrase such as It can be shown . . .This is always disappointing; on the other hand, the alternative is to delay study of solid state devices until the graduate level, where statistical mechanics, quantum theory, and other advanced background can be freely invoked. Such a delay would result in a more elegant treatment of certain subjects, but it would prevent undergraduate students from enjoying the study of some very exciting devices.
The discussion includes both silicon and compound semiconductors, to reflect the continuing growth in importance for compounds in optoelectronic and high-speed device applications. Topics such as heterojunctions, latticematching using ternary and quaternary alloys, variation of band gap with alloy composition, and properties of quantum wells add up to the breadth of the discussion. Not to be outdone by the compounds, silicon-based devices have continued their dramatic record of advancement.The discussion of FET structures and Si integrated circuits reflects these advancements. Our objective is not to cover all the latest devices, which can only be done in the journal and conference literature. Instead, we have chosen devices to discuss which are broadly illustrative of important principles.
The first four chapters of the book provide background on the nature of semiconductors and conduction processes in solids. Included is a brief introduction to quantum concepts (Chapter 2) for those students who do not already have this background from other courses. Chapter 5 describes the p-n junction and some of its applications. Chapters 6 and 7 deal with the principles of transistor operation. Chapter 8 covers optoelectronics and Chapter 9 discusses integrated circuits. Chapters 10 applies the theory of junctions and conduction processes to microwave and power devices. All of the devices covered are important in todays electronics; furthermore, learning about these devices should be an enjoyable and rewarding experience.We hope this book provides that kind of experience for its readers.
The sixth edition benefits greatly from comments and suggestions provided by students and teachers of the first five editions. The books readers have generously provided comments which have been invaluable in developing the present version.We remain indebted to those persons mentioned in the Preface of the first five editions, who contributed so much to the development of the book. In particular, Nick Holonyak has been a source of continuing information and inspiration for all six editions. Additional thanks go to our colleagues at UTAustin who have provided special assistance, particularly Joe Campbell, Leonard Frank Register, Ray Chen,Archie Holmes, Dim-Lee Kwong, Jack Lee, and Dean Neikirk. Lisa Weltzer provided useful assistance with the typing of the homework solutions.We thank the many companies and organizations cited in the figure captions for generously providing photographs and illustrations of devices and fabrication processes. Bill Dunnigan, Naras Iyengar, and Pradipto Mukherjee at Freescale, Peter Rickert and Puneet Kohli at TI, Chandra Mouli and Dan Spangler at Micron, Majeed Foad at Applied Materials, and Tim Sater at MEMC deserve special mention for the new pictures in this edition. Finally, we recall with gratitude many years of association with the late Al Tasch, a valued colleague and friend.
Ben G. Streetman
Sanjay Kumar Banerjee