Biology: A Guide to the Natural World

Chapter 2: The Fundamental Building Blocks: Chemistry and Life

Chapter Review Quiz

Each question in this quiz has been categorized to help you determine the challenge level. A level 1 question typically helps you review memory recall ideas or factual content. A level 2 question typically requires integration of many ideas and a higher level thought process. You should attempt all the questions as your instructor may require both levels of performance on your exam.

1. Which of the following is formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms that do not differ in electronegativities? (level 1). [Hint]

2. Which of the following is the bond formed between the oxygen atom and the two hydrogen atoms in a molecule of water? (level 1). [Hint]

3. The drawings of atoms in your text are actually based on the "planetary model" of what an atom looks like. If a three-dimensional model of an atom could be constructed that was as big as the room you are sitting in, most of the atom's volume would be occupied by ...(level 2). [Hint]

4. In an atom that has not undergone any type of chemical reaction, the number of electrons ...(level 2). [Hint]

5. The primary reason that atoms form chemical bonds is so they can ...(level 2). [Hint]

6. Protons and neutrons are said to have a mass of approximately 1 dalton each. Recall that electrons are thought to have virtually no mass. Therefore, a hydrogen atom (with an atomic number of 1) would have a mass of approximately 1 dalton, and an oxygen atom (with an atomic number of 8) would have a mass of approximately 16 daltons. How much mass would one molecule of water have? (level 1). [Hint]

7. Look carefully at the following chemical equation. What is incorrect about this equation? 3 C + 16 H -----> 3 CH4 (level 2). [Hint]

8. Nitric oxide is a common type of "free radical" found in human cells. Free radicals are defined as ...(level 1). [Hint]

9. When you pour salt into water and stir, the salt will disappear. Which of the following statements is true concerning this phenomenon? (level 1). [Hint]

10. Before the nature of atoms was known, many men (known as alchemists) tried to turn iron into gold. However, none of them ever succeeded. If you could truly turn iron into gold, how would you do it? (level 2). [Hint]

11. When a water molecule is formed ...(level 2). [Hint]

12. The identity of a chemical element is determined by ... (level 1). [Hint]

13. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen that contains three subatomic particles in its nucleus. The three particles are ... (level 1). [Hint]

14. Salt molecules dissolve in water because ... (level 2). [Hint]

15. The primary elements that are used to build the human body are ... (level 1). [Hint]

16. If an atom has an atomic number of 7, how many electrons would be in the atom's outer shell? (level 1). [Hint]

17. In the formation of a salt molecule (NaCl) ... (level 1). [Hint]

18. Some molecules are known as "signals" because they signal the beginning of certain cellular functions. In order for a signal to do its job though, it must bind to a specific "receptor" on the cell's surface. What is the most critical factor in signal/receptor binding? (level 2). [Hint]

19. The following is the chemical formula for the molecule carbon dioxide: O=C=O. The two lines that connect each oxygen atom to the one carbon atom represent ...(level 2). [Hint]

20. Free radicals are potentially damaging atoms or molecules that are created in our cells during metabolic processes. They initiate damage to our bodies by ...(level 1). [Hint]

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