After studying the material of this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Use parallax to determine the distance to nearby stars.
2. Distinguish between a star, a galaxy, and a super cluster.
3. Given the absolute luminosity and distance from the earth to a star, calculate the apparent brightness of the star.
4. Calculate the apparent and absolute magnitude of a star.
5. Draw a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Explain what is meant by the main sequence and locate the current position of our sun on the main sequence.
6. Describe the current theory of stellar evolution as applied to our sun. Describe the possible 'deaths' of a star.
7. State Einstein's principle of equivalence.
8. Explain what is meant by gravity as curvature in space and time.
9. Determine the Schwarzchild radius of the black hole formed by a star of given mass.
10. Explain how the Doppler effect indicates that the universe is expanding. Use Hubble's law to determine the velocity of recession of a star a known distance from the earth.
11. Cite evidence that indicates that the universe evolved from an initial explosion called the 'Big Bang'.
12. Use the standard cosmological model to describe the evolution of the universe from 10-43 s to the present time.
13. Distinguish between an open universe and a closed universe. Describe how the critical density can be used to determine whether the universe is open or closed.