After studying the material of this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Identify the major components of a simple camera and explain how these components combine to produce a clear image.
2. Identify the major components of the human eye and explain how an image is formed on the retina of the eye.
3. Explain the causes of myopia and hyperopia, describe how these conditions may be corrected, and solve word problems related to corrective lenses for these conditions.
4. Explain how a magnifying glass can be used to produce an enlarged image and solve word problems involving the magnifying glass.
5. Explain how two convex lenses can be arranged in order to form an astronomical telescope and solve word problems related to this type of telescope.
6. Explain the operation of the Newtonian focus telescope, Cassegrainian focus telescope, and Galilean type telescope.
7. Explain how two convex lenses can be arranged in order to form a compound microscope and solve word problems related to this type of microscope.
8. Distinguish between spherical aberration and chromatic aberration and explain how each type of aberration can be corrected.
9. Describe the factors which affect resolution of an image and limit the effective magnification of a telescope or microscope.
10. Explain how the phenomena of x ray diffraction can be used either to determine the distance between the atoms of a crystal or the wavelength of the incident x rays. Use the Bragg equation to solve word problems involving x ray diffraction.